The 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion
in U.S. & Central Europe during World War II
compiled by Joseph Towell, Norfolk, Virginia, 1991-2000
This history is presented to record the part played by the men of the 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion toward the victory of the United States in central Europe in World War II. It came about because there was no one advertising a reunion of the unit in any of the veteran or military publications. In trying to locate a reunion, it was discovered that the only unit history available was located in the National Archives and, using this version as a start, the final version was developed. This history was compiled mostly from publications and official documents. It is presented and dedicated to all members and former members.
Chapter 1 - History of the Chemical Warfare Service
Chapter 2 - 4.2-inch mortar background
Chapter 3 - 4.2-inch mortar units
Chapter 4 - Mortar battalions and training
Chapter 5 - Getting chemical mortar battalions for the ETO
Chapter 6 - General
Chapter 7 - 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion strength
Chapter 8 - 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion stations
Chapter 9 - 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion campaigns
Chapter 10 - 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion battles
Chapter 11 - The Final Drive
Chapter 12 - Twelfth Army Group
Chapter 13 - Third Army
Chapter 14 - VIII Corps
Chapter 15 - Chronology
Chapter 16 - First Army
Chapter 17 - Ninth Army
Chapter 18 - Commanding officers in important engagements
Chapter 19 - Awards to members who distinguished themselves in action
Chapter 20 - Original cadre of 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion
Chapter 21 - Members of 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion
History of the Chemical Warfare Service (CWS)
It might be of interest to know something about the Chemical Warfare Service and those who were in charge of it. The wartime chiefs of the Chemical Warfare Service were Maj. Gen. Walter C. Baker until April 1941, and Maj. Gen.William N. Porter, May 1941 to November 1945.
About 620 chemical warfare troop units served during the war. Units used in ground operations included chemical mortar battalions, which used the 4.2-inch mortar, chemical smoke generator battalions, chemical service battalions, and the following types of companies: chemical mortar, chemical decontamination, chemical depot, chemical base depot, chemical laboratory, chemical maintenance, chemical processing, and chemical composite (or service).
Units used by air combat forces included the following types of aviation chemical companies: air operations, service, storage, depot, and maintenance. There were three types of chemical platoons planned for use against enemy gas attack, but very few left the United States and all were disbanded by the end of 1942.
Each troop unit was numbered, and each normally underwent a training, organization and staging phase within the continental United States and an operational phase outside the continental U.S. When a unit was being redeployed from the European or Mediterranean Theater to the China-Burma-India or Pacific Theaters, there was a redeployment phase in the continental United States.
4.2-inch mortar background
The 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion was equipped with 4.2-inch mortars. What is a 4.2-inch mortar and how did it come about?
The 4.2-inch chemical mortar was a multipurpose weapon employed in close support of ground troops. Its versatility was indicated by its ability to fire toxic agents, smoke, and high explosives. In original tactical concept, it was a basic ground weapon for offensive gas warfare. No other weapon approached the gas-delivering capacity of the 4.2-inch mortar. Eight of them could fire over a ton of toxic agent in the span of two minutes. The smoke mission was also a part of the original tactical concept of mortar employment and was one of the reasons for its success in World War II. But the real key to the popularity of the weapon was its ability to fire high explosive shell, a johnny-come-lately as far as chemical missions were concerned.
The 4.2-inch mortar was the culmination of attempts to improve the 4-inch British Brandt Stokes (SB) mortar. With American-made SB mortars and with shell and propellant purchased from the British after World War I, the CWS sought to obtain increased range, accuracy and mobility. By 1924, experiments under the direction of Capt. Lewis M. McBride (later colonel) produced the rifled 4.2-inch chemical mortar with a range of over 2000 yards, and by the end of World War II this distance had been doubled.
The CWS saw the 4.2-inch mortar as a weapon which possessed mobility and flexibility, which could go in and out of action quickly, and which was capable of delivering massed fire in an unusually short time. Calculation of firing data was simple, and the communications system was efficient and rapid. Its high angle of fire enabled it to reach targets in defiladed positions, inaccessible to most types of artillery. The short minimum range of the mortar and its mobility enabled it to give support to infantry units. The low silhouette of this easily concealed weapon offered a difficult target to the enemy.
If the high explosive mission had not been authorized, activity of chemical mortar units in a non-gas war probably would have been confined to screening operations. While the CWS saw the chief function of the mortar as firing gas shells, it did not overlook the possibility of using the weapon to fire high explosives. As early as 1934 these shells were fired in experiments.
After the outbreak of World War II, the infantry's need for a good medium-range close support weapon became evident, and General Porter and his staff took vigorous steps to get the HE shell standardized and to make firing of such a shell a major mission of chemical mortar battalions.
On March 19, 1943 the War Department authorized the use of HE by the 4.2-inch mortar and directed that necessary amendments be made in the tactical doctrine.
In World War II Was A Chemical War (Army & Navy Journal, vol LXXXIII, Major General William N. Porter, USA, wrote: Another surprise weapon was the 4.2-inch chemical mortar. Affectionately dubbed the goon gun by chemical mortar battalions which used it, this light rifled mortar gave invaluable support to assault troops.
This mortar was so successful on land that it was subsequently mounted on boats to cover beach assaults in the Pacific. Ready for use at the time of the Japanese surrender was a recoilless mortar, half the weight of the other, which was capable of direct and deflected fire and the shock of the recoil was taken up by gases from the explosive charge escaping through the rear.
General Somervell hailed the 4.2-inch mortar as an outstanding CWS war contribution, while General Marshall credited the mortar, the incendiary bomb and the flamethrower with materially helping the offensive. The CWS had produced some 10,000,000 shells for the chemical mortar by the time the war closed.
4.2-inch mortar units
What was the status of 4.2-inch mortar units and how did they develop?
In mid-1941 there was only a handful of mortar units, consisting of regiments, separate battalions, and companies. The 1st and 2nd Chemical Regiments had only one active company between them; the two separate battalions, also the 1st and 2nd, each had an active company. Completing the roster were two separate chemical companies, one of which was to be lost on Bataan and the other to be inactivated shortly after the United States entered the war. This unimpressive list, with its regiments, battalions, and companies, indicated some indecision about the size of the basic type of weapons unit. Indeed, the brigade also had its supporters. By 1941 it had been pretty well decided that the basic unit of the mortar organization would be the battalion, composed of organic companies. The exception was the several separate mortar companies which saw action in the Pacific fighting.
As of January 1942 there were two chemical mortar battalions, the 2nd and 3rd, on active duty. Four more, the 81st, 82nd, 83rd, and 84th were activated by mid-year. During the ten-month interval from June 1942 until May 1943 the number of mortar battalions remained at six. As all of the six existing battalions were committed for the month of March and May 1943, the CWS urgently recommended that 19 additional battalions be activated by the end of 1943, six of them at once to replace a like number being sent overseas. Soon after the final decision to commit four battalions for operations in Sicily, the War Department authorized the activation of four additional battalions, the 86th, 87th, and 88th in May and the 85th in June.
Upon entry in combat each of the mortar battalions was composed of 1,010 men: 36 officers, 1 warrant officer, and 973 enlisted men, 32 distributed among a headquarters, a headquarters company, a medical detachment, and four weapons companies. Each company had 2 platoons, each platoon had two sections, and each section had 3 squads. On the basis of one mortar per squad, the battalion complement of mortars was 48. Transportation of the battalion consisted of 88 2½-ton trucks and 36 vehicles of varying smaller sizes. Chemical mortar carts were present in case of rough terrain. Side arms for the battalion included 820 .45-caliber automatics.
General Shadle, chief chemical officer, NATOUSA, put his finger on one of the main shortcomings revealed by this first test of combat when he said there was nothing seriously wrong with the 4.2-inch mortar or the chemical battalion except transportation. The principal means of motor transport in the mortar battalion was the 2½-ton truck, often too big and too conspicuous to operate adequately in positions as near the front as the 4.2-inch mortars were emplaced. The ¼-ton truck and trailer seemed more appropriate, and at times infantry commanders gave up some of their own jeeps in order to ensure chemical mortar support.
The mortar battalion tables of organization and equipment published shortly after the Sicilian campaign provided for ¼-ton trucks and trailers as the basic means of transportation. The other serious difficulty encountered in the first combat employment of the mortar was that of its range. The introduction of the M5AI propellant in January 1943 increased the range of the mortar from 2,400 yards to 3,200 yards. The M6 propellant, standardized in March 1943, raised the maximum range to 4,500 yards although the item was not in production in time for use in Sicily. Meanwhile, in July 1943, the Office of the Chief, CWS (OCCWS) froze the range of the 4.2-inch mortar at 3,200 yards, despite repeated requests from North Africa for increased range. At the end of the hostilities in Sicily a conference of Seventh Army CWS officers agreed that a range of 4,500 was required, an opinion which was reflected in the other important reports of the Sicilian Campaign. These recommendations, combined with an urgent request from theater headquarters for a chemical mortar range of at least 4,500 yards led the OCCWS to reverse its decision.
Mortar battalions and training
The strength of the CWS at the end of April 1942 was 1,832 officers and 12,068 enlisted men. Four chemical mortar battalions were in training and by the end of June two more were to be mobilized. The air and ground chemical troop basis as of 25 May 1942 called for 4,970 officers and 47,192 enlisted men. It contemplated the mobilization of 105 ground service units and 105 air chemical units. The Army Supply Program called for the activation of twenty-two more chemical mortar battalions in 1943 and 1944.
The policy on chemical mortar battalions as worked out in the spring of 1942 made Army Ground Forces (AGF) responsible for the activation and unit training of these organizations; the officers, unit cadres, and filler and loss replacements were to be trained and supplied by the CWS.
Officer requirements for these battalions and for the chemical units in prospect for ground and air forces necessitated immediate enlargement of the modest CWS Officer Candidate School that began operations in January 1942.
Troop requirements for nearly thirty-five thousand filler and loss replacements during the remainder of the calendar year forced radical changes in the approach to both individual and unit training. A new and vitalized chemical training program for the Army at large coupled with War Department insistence on more realistic chemical situations in ground force maneuvers combined to give the CWS greatly enlarged training responsibilities.
The decision of the War Department to mobilize a substantial number of chemical organizations during 1942 presented the immediate problem of providing suitable cadres around which these new units could be built. The limited number of existing chemical companies excluded the possibility of obtaining the necessary cadres from parent organizations. It therefore became necessary to fill cadre positions with replacement trainees.
A special cadre training company was established at the Edgewood Arsenal Replacement Training Center (RTC) in June 1942.
The cadre training company at Edgewood Arsenal followed the general pattern of the RTC specialists schools; at the end of the period of basic military training, selected men were transferred to the cadre company where for the remainder of the RTC course they received specialized instruction according to the needs of organizations requiring cadre complements.
This procedure was amplified after transfer of the RTC to Camp Siebert, where only men who had completed the entire course of replacement training were selected for additional instruction as cadre men. Selection was made by a board of three officers and was based on demonstrated qualities of leadership, excellent character rating, and an Army General Classification Test rating of ninety or higher. Throughout 1943, when the group of cadre trainees was usually in excess of one hundred, this training was accomplished in four weeks of additional instruction.
An important use of cadre men was in connection with the activation of the chemical mortar battalions authorized under the 1942 Troop Basis. Although responsibility for unit training of these battalions was delegated by the War Department to the AGF, the CWS was deeply interested in the training of weapons units and accordingly coordinated the early cadre training program quite closely with the AGF schedule for the activation of chemical battalions. The needs of the mortar battalions received careful consideration, both in the selection of cadre men and in the attention given to their training. When these cadres left Camp Siebert, they carried with them charts and other training aids to assist in the work of instructing the newly activated weapons units.
Training of mortar battalions
The two battalions which the chief of staff first authorized for activation in September 1941 were not actually mobilized until January 1942. By that time, the activation of four more battalions had been authorized. Two of the additional battalions were mobilized in April and two in June 1942. These six battalions were created for the primary purpose of providing the U.S. Army with the means of retaliating with gas in ground operations. Since they represented an important feature of the War Department's program for improving readiness for gas warfare, the CWS felt considerable responsibility for their technical competence. The battalions fired smoke, yet this mission alone could not justify their existence. Their employment in firing high explosive shell had been proposed by CWS but was not at this time (spring of 1942) authorized by the general staff. The original proposal of General Porter that chemical battalions be activated at the rate of one per infantry division was rejected in favor of the plan for mobilizing units on the basis of special projects. This was taken to mean, in effect, that when gas warfare began or appeared to be imminent, additional battalions provided for under the 1942 Troop Basis would be activated.
The battalions activated or expanded in the winter or early spring of 1942 received their initial cadres from existing chemical units. On 1 January, Company C of the 2nd Chemical Regiment at Fort Benning, Ga., was inactivated and its personnel were transferred to the newly activated 3rd Separate Chemical Battalion (Motorized). Two weeks later Headquarters Company and Company A of the 2nd Battalion moved from their station at Edgewood to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, but the 2nd Battalion did not reach full strength until companies B, C, and D were activated in April.7 Additional personnel for these battalions came from the infantry, the coast artillery, the medical department and the CWS Replacement Training Center. Officers and enlisted men in both battalions were of high caliber and, spurred on by the memory of the recent Pearl Harbor attack, they were anxious to do a particularly good job.
Each battalion had some officers who understood infantry tactics, a requirement in the training of the units for infantry support.
As provided in the mobilization regulations, the battalions carried out basic and unit training concurrently. The health and endurance of the individual soldier were emphasized; he was taught to use his weapons and to care for himself in the field. Stress was placed on duty, honorable conduct, and uncomplaining obedience. These remained the essentials of mobilization training during the war.
The tactical training of the early battalions was handicapped by a shortage of mortars and ammunition, a deficiency that was not overcome until 1943.
Although the principal mission of the battalions was the firing of toxics and smoke, the 2nd also fired some five hundred rounds of high explosives before going overseas. Another handicap in the initial period of training was the lack of a specific training program for chemical battalions. This situation was rectified somewhat in May 1942 with the publication of a program for the mobilization training of battalions, but it was not until January 1944 that the War Department published a Unit Training Program for chemical battalions.
In July 1942, both the 2nd and 3rd Battalions, having been trained up to company level, were directed to participate in Army maneuvers. The 2nd was ordered to the Carolina maneuver area and the 3rd, which had been transferred from Fort Benning to Fort Bliss, Texas, in April, was ordered to the Louisiana maneuver area. From November 1942 to March 1943, companies of the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were rotated for amphibious training at Camp Gordon Johnston, Florida, under the Chemical Warfare Amphibious Project, the object of which was the training of companies in the use of smoke in landing operations, a technique which these units never used in combat. Before being sent overseas the 2nd Battalion was attached to the 45th Infantry Division for training at Camp Picket, Va. This was one of the very few instances in World War II where a chemical mortar battalion actually went through a period of training in the zone of interior with a division.
Cadres from the 2nd and 3rd Battalions, together with some 800 men from the RTC at Edgewood who had been given special mortar training over a period of four to six weeks, were detailed as cadres for the 81st, 83rd, and 84th Battalions when they were activated in the spring of 1942. The 81st and the 82nd were both activated on 25 April 1942 at Fort D. A. Russell and Bliss, Texas, respectively. The 83rd was activated 19 June 1942 at Camp Gordon, Georgia, and the 84th on 5 June at Camp Rucker, Alabama. These battalions like the 2nd and 3rd before them, were handicapped by a shortage of mortars, ammunition, training literature and training aids. Until mortars were received at the beginning of 1943, emphasis was placed on physical conditioning of the men, identification of chemical agents, and small arms training. In March 1943, the 82nd was ordered to the Louisiana maneuver area, and in the following month the 81st was directed to participate in the same maneuvers. This was the last occasion during the war when chemical mortar battalions took part in Army maneuvers, so important for the training of combat units.
Despite the handicaps which the 81st, 82nd, 83rd, and 84th Battalions faced, their training seems to have been quite satisfactory as far as it went. Raw recruits were trained to be good soldiers through long and tedious hours of work and instruction. Ambitious enlisted men were offered opportunites for promotion or attendence at OCS.
While the principal mission of the mortar battalions was the dispersion of toxic agents and smoke, the CWS was of the opinion that the battalions could be profitably used to fire high explosives in support of the infantry.
The CWS had little difficulty in securing approval for establishing a military requirement for the 4.2-inch high explosive shell; on 10 April 1942 the Chief, CWS, submitted a request to the commanding general, Army Service Forces (ASF), which was approved on 26 April 1942. Convincing the AGF of the potentialities of the mortar for firing HE was a much more prolonged task.
In February 1943 the Chief, CWS, arranged for a conference among representatives of the ASF, the AGF, and the CWS, to discuss the feasibility of having a War Department directive issued authorizing chemical troops to fire high explosives.
Suggestions emanating from this meeting led to the War Department action on 26 April 1943 authorizing the firing of high explosives by chemical troops.
The official change in mission to include the firing of high explosive shell had a marked effect on the training of mortar battalions. From the spring of 1943 on, training was concentrated more on that aspect of the mission than on the dispersion of toxics and smoke. From May 1943 till 1945, twenty-two additional chemical battalions were activated by the AGF and trained in various camps throughout the United States. Of these twenty-two, the first four, the 85th, 86th, 87th, and 88th, all activated in May and June 1943, drained the entire Regular establishment of available battalion commanders. Thereafter battalion commanders came primarily from the ranks of reserve officers called to active duty.
Although the chemical mortar battalions were activated by the AGF and remained under its jurisdiction, the CWS, as indicated above, retained a considerable interest in them. The CWS supplied most of their officers and cadres, procured their mortars and ammunition, and was responsible for the technical aspects of their training. The chemical mortar battalions were accepted in the theaters as stemming from the CWS, even though their early growth was nurtured by the AGF.
The CWS, moreover, had a considerable role in the writing of the tables of organization and mobilization training programs for mortar battalions.
With the appearance of the mobilization training program for unit training of chemical battalions in January 1944, the platoon, company and battalion phases of training were spelled out much more precisely than heretofore. During the platoon and company phases of training, which were to run for five and four weeks respectively, each unit was to be developed into a fighting team capable of operating with other units in various types of battle missions. In these phases, troops were to be psychologically prepared for the shock of battle by being subjected to overhead fire, fire past their flanks, tank attacks against entrenchments of their own construction, and realistic, simulated attacks from the air. During the battalion phase of training, which was scheduled for three weeks, each unit was to be taught to perform its tactical and technical functions in the battalion through movements, maneuvers, and exercises in simulated combat situations. All three training phases called for additional instruction in basic and general subjects, such as military intelligence, security, and physical and mental conditioning.
These schedules were not simple elaborations of the training programs, but included, in addition to the requirements of the War Departent, certain aspects of training which the commanding officers felt should be stressed. In a way these schedules and the training carried out under them reflected the personalities of the individual battalion commanders. If the commander was gifted with imagination, training would tend to be realistic and consideration would be given in such activities as firing the mortar and marches to actual tactical situations. The military background of the commanding officer also tended to influence training. If, as sometimes happened, the commanding officer had an artillery background, the firing of the mortar would be approached from the artillery point of view.
The training of CWS officers for duty with chemical battalions was, on the whole, never as well integrated as, for example, the pre-activation training of artillery officers scheduled for assignment to field artillery battalions.
This same lack of integration is evident in connection with the unit training of chemical battalions. The AGF did not have available firing areas where toxic agents could be released, and arrangements were never worked out for the battalions to fire gas munitions at CWS proving grounds; the training of these units in gas warfare was therfore theoretical at best. At the same time their training in close support of the infantry with HE was never altogether satisfactory because their mobilization training was entirely unrelated to that of the organizations they eventually supported in battle. When the activation of the initial series of six chemical battalions was begun in 1942, a third of the Army's wartime divisions already were mobilized, and the division mobilization program was virtually completed by the time activation of chemical battalions was resumed in 1943. Most of the battalions thus missed out on the splendid teamwork development of non-divisional units which climaxed AGF training in the United States. In many, if not a majority of cases, the battalions first encountered the units they were to support only after their arrival in the theaters of operation, so that lessons that should had been learned in maneuvers had to be mastered in combat.
The primary objective of the CWS Officer Candidate School was, from the start, the production of combat rather than staff officers. A steady demand for lieutenants to serve with chemical mortar battalions quickly absorbed many graduates of the second to eleventh classes. Once the first phase of battalion mobilization was completed, increasing numbers of graduates went to chemical service-type companies. The stress on qualifications for combat leadership persisted into 1943 when mobilization of additional chemical mortar battalions was begun. The requirements of the Army Air Forces (AAF) for junior CWS officers were running so heavy in the last half of 1942 that special emphasis was placed on training in aviation subjects for the sixth to thirteenth classes. However, the long-range mission of the OCS course was to train officer candidates in the basic military subjects which will qualify them as combat platoon officers.
93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion training
1. Cadre training: During the period 24 March to 22 May 1944, a cadre training program was in effect. The primary purpose was to prepare the men for the forthcoming basic training period in their new role as instructors and leaders. A portion of time was spent in reviewing basic and specialized subjects. Each cadre member conducted practice classes.
2. Basic training: A week's delay was authorized after cadre training to await final shipment of trainees. The basic training program was inaugurated on 22 May 1944. Due to previous training which all men had received, the basic period was cut to eleven weeks. To determine whether or not the battalion had satisfactorily completed basic training. IX Corps conducted a test covering all subjects. The battalion received a satisfactory grade for the period, and basic training ended on 5 August 1944.
3. Unit training: This period contained very little formal instruction. It consisted of a series of field problems and combined operations, involving firing problems, motor marches and tactics as follows:
a. 7-12 August 1944: Individual field operations, Conecuh National Forest, Alabama.
b. 18-23 August 1944: Individual field operations and field firing, Fort Benning, Georgia.
c. 28 Aug-9 Sept 1944: Combined training, firing with infantry battalions, and IX Corps tests.
d. 4-15 October 1944: Advanced chemical training, smoke screen with HC pots, contamination and decontamination of H, firing CNB shells in a battalion shoot, and a six day field maneuver. Place: Camp Sibert, Alabama.
e. Throughout the period of unit training, IX Corps conducted the following tests:
(1) 29-30 August 1944: Air-ground test. A combined operation with engineer units, involving stream crossing. Grade: Satisfactory.
(2) 5 September 1944: Physical fitness test. Company A was picked to represent the battalion, and successfully completed the test. Grade: Satisfactory.
(3) 12 September 1944: MOS test. Given to a cross-section of specialists. Grade: Satisfactory.
(4) 13-14 September 1944: Basic medical test. This test was held for the entire battalion. Grade: Satisfactory.
(5) 15-16 September 1944: Combat intelligence test. This test was given to a selected group of officers and enlisted men. Grade: Satisfactory.
4. The third period of training was a carry-over of the second, or unit training period, with emphasis being placed on firing tactics. Several battalion field problems were held, and emphasis was placed on realism. Situations were given for all problems. Battalion headquarters sections were given their share in the activities by setting up forward command posts and issuing orders covering the operations. This third and final training period was terminated on 31 December 1944. In the period 15 through 29 November 1944, the battalion took part in infantry battalion combat firing tests with the 65th Infantry Division. On 14, 15, 16 and 23 November, the battalion received its own combat firing tests by the Second Army. Grade: Satisfactory.
5. Qualification in arms: This phase of training received great emphasis. The battalion set up its own standards, and made them high. Each man was to qualify with both the M-1 rifle and the carbine cal. 30, regardless of which he was armed with and regardless of how many times he had to re-fire the course. As a result, 100% qualification was obtained in both weapons.
6. Familiarization firing: Each man fired familiarization courses with rocket launchers, grenade launchers, and cal. 50 machine guns on both ground and anti-aircraft targets. Each man threw live fragmentation grenades.
Getting chemical mortar battalions for the ETO
Mortar battalions were needed in the European Theater of Operations (ETO), but getting chemical mortar battalions for the that theater proved to be a complicated and difficult problem. Colonel Rowan, chief chemical officer in the theater, had recommended a total of 24 battalions for the theater troop list, a figure based upon the formula of 2 battalions per corps (18) and 2 additional battalions per army (6). His commander approved this recommendation, including the figure in the overall troop list which was forwarded to Washington early in 1943.
The War Department took no action on the troop basis recommended by the theater commander. In November 1943 it sent an officer to England to inform the theater commander on War Department troop basis policy-the establishment of an over-all theater personnel ceiling within which the theater commander could set up his own troop basis. The officer produced a list of those units which were immediately available, those which were in training, and those which were scheduled for activation. He stated that the theater commander could take his pick, staying, of course, within his over-all ceiling. Because the list admittedly had no relation to the one submitted by the ETO, a situation which negated a large amount of detailed planning, the War Department agreed to activate and train units not on the list, with the understanding that this would take additional time. Unfortunately, there were only seven chemical mortar battalions on the list.
Lt. Gen. Omar N. Bradley, commander of the U.S. army group in the theater, received the job of determining the final troop list. Rowan pointed out to General Bradley that the seven chemical mortar battalions bore no numerical relation to the number of armies and corps on the list, that they could not be distributed equitably, and that they were far too few to achieve their full potential. Rowan then asked Bradley for the twenty-four mortar battalions of the original troop list. Bradley replied that he would like to have more mortar units but, because the troop ceiling had just about been reached, adding them would mean giving up other units that were equally valuable. This he was reluctant to do.
At the time of these negotiations the only mortar battalion located in the ETO was the 81st. Four others were then in the MTO (Mediterranean Theater of Operations): the 2nd, 3rd, 83rd and 84th. Those and 13 more joined the 81st in the ETO before the fighting was over. Those 13 were the 86th, 87th, 89th, 90th, 91st, 92nd, 93rd, 94th, 95th, 96th, 97th, 99th and 100th.
A change in the table of organization and equipment (TO&E) for the mortar battalion promised an unexpected source of men. Under the existing table, the authorized strength was 1,010; a revised table of September 1943 reduced this number to 622. Colonel Rowan was informed that the battalions in the United States were organized under the old table. Taking into consideration the battalions then existing and those which could be formed from the men made excess by reorganization under the new table, Colonel Rowan came up with a total of eleven potentially available battalions. If General Bradley asked for but one battalion in addition to the War Department troop list, there would be enough to equal just half of the original request, or one per corps and army. General Bradley acceded, requesting twelve mortar battalions for the theater troop list.
Although it began auspiciously, the plan for capitalizing on battalion reorganization as a source for new units soon turned sour. The theater received permission in December to activate a mortar battalion in England manned in large part by the men freed in the reorganization of the 81st Battalion. But Rowan learned to his dismay that the battalions in the United States earmarked for his theater had already been reorganized under the new TO&E, thus cutting off an important supply of personnel.
A personnel problem of a different sort had existed even before the battalions entered combat. The revised TO&E of September 1943, it will be recalled, reduced the battalion strength from 1,010 to 622. Battalion commanders were of the opinion that this number was below that required to man, supply, and provide communications for the forty-eight mortars within the unit. Although there was disagreement as to the composition of an appropriate TO&E, all of the commanders considered the 6-man squad too small to keep a mortar in action. A popular remedy was to withdraw several mortars and reinforce the remaining squads with the men thus freed. Lt. Col. Ronald LeV. Martin took more drastic action with the 92nd Battalion. He received permission to eliminate one of the four companies of his unit, thus anticipating the revised TO&E which was to become effective in the fall of 1944.
Another difficulty which emerged in Normandy involved the tactical employment of chemical mortar units, or more precisely, the matter of mortar battalion control. The resulting controversy provoked two schools of thought, one holding that mortar units should be directly responsible to the infantry which they supported, the other maintaining that they should operate under artillery control.
One of the main benefits of the artillery control system was the efficiency with which the battalion could operate as a unit. In defensive situations, mortar fire could be readily massed and the unit's fire could be effectively integrated with that of the artillery.
Most of those concerned, the CWS and otherwise, favored the close infantry support method. This fact was confirmed in a CWS theater of operations letter which stated that although applicable artillery techniques and practices should be used, the normal role of the chemical battalion should be considered as part of the infantry team... furnishing close support with a heavy and powerful mortar. During December the mortar battalions began to reorganize under new tables of organization and equipment Dated 29 September, the revised TO&E converted the battalion to a triangular organization by eliminating Company D.This change had long been advocated by CWS officers, although there had been a recent move to retain the fourth company as a replacement and training unit. The designation of the three companies was changed from weapons to mortar. Each had three platoons of 4 mortars, or a total of 36 for a battalion; the previous organization provided for 4 companies, each with 2 platoons of 6 mortars, or a total of 48.
Battalion commanders had long complained of insufficient men; now, despite the reduction in the number of weapons, battalion strength rose from 622 to 672. What formerly had been the headquarters detachment with 63 men was changed to a headquarters company with 155. The inclusion of nine 2½-ton trucks in the new TO&E provided a slight increase in the amount of organic transportation.
The 93rd Chemical Battalion (Motorized) was activated on 24 March 1944 in Camp Rucker, Alabama, per Letter Order Number A 3-23, Headquarters Second Army, Memphis 15, Tennessee, dated 15 March 1944. It was organized under T/O 3-25, dated 7 September 1943. The battalion strength was set at 39 officers, 1 warrant officer, and 582 enlisted men. Cadre was furnished by the CWS Replacement Training Center. The officers and enlisted men of the cadre were assigned to companies per Special Orders 1, 2, 3, Headquarters, 93rd Chemical Battalion (Motorized), dated 24, 25, and 26 March 1944 respectively.
The following named officers were announced as the battalion staff on General Order Number 1, Headquarters, 93rd Chemical Battalion (Motorized), dated 24 March 1944:
Major Justin D. Paddleford, 0-351118, CWS, Bn CO
Captain William H. Crockford, 0-301425, CWS, Bn S-3
Captain John L. Whelan Jr, 0-446626, CWS, Bn Ex O
1st Lt Robert I. Bloom, 0-446610, CWS, Bn S-2
1st Lt William C. Goins, 0-465479, CWS, Bn S-4
1st Lt William H. Squires, 0-442623, CWS, Bn S-1
On 4 July 1944, at Camp Rucker, Alabama, Lt Col Jacquard H. Rothschild, 0018077, assumed command of the battalion. On 6 August 1944, Captain Marshall S. Marshall, 0-436613, was assigned to Headquarters and announced as battalion executive officer. He was promoted to the rank of major per Par 1, SO #136, Headquarters, Ninth U.S. Army, dated 16 May 1945.
93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion strength
After activation in March 1944, the morning report showed a total strength of 38 officers and 80 enlisted men. During the month of April 1944, 16 men were received from Hq, 5th Det Sp Trs, 2nd Army, Camp Rucker, Alabama, and 75 men were received from Hq, 100th Div, Camp Rucker, Alabama. This brought the total strength on the morning report at the end of April 1944 to 47 officers and 179 enlisted men.
During May 1944, the battalion received an additional 46 men from Hq, 66th Div, Camp Rucker, Alabama; 106 from Barrage Balloon Tng Ctr, Camp Tyson, Tenn; 160 from AAATC Cp Davis, NC; and 105 from AAATC Hq, Camp Haan, Califrnia. The morning report strength as of 31 May 1944 was 49 officcrs and 644 enlisted men.
The morning report showed a decrease during June, July and August 1944; and, as of August 31, 1944, strength was 44 officers, 1 WO, and 539 enlisted men.
In Sept 1944, 53 men were received from ASF Replacement Depot, Camp Reynolds, Penna, and 45 were received from Hq 5th Det Sp Trs, 2nd Army, Camp Rucker, Alabama. The morning report showed 41 officers, 1 WO, and 628 enlisted men as of 30 Sept 1944.
After receiving 12 men from Hq ASF Replacement Depot, Camp Beale, California, and the decrease during the month of Oct 1944, the morning report strength was 42 officers, 1 WO, and 615 enlisted men as of October 31, 1944.
After the addition of 26 men received from Hq 24th Det Sp Trs, 2nd Army, Camp Shelby, Miss., during Nov 1944, and decreases during the month, the morning report stood at 43 officers, 1 WO, and 636 enlisted men on 30 November 1944.
48 men were received from Hq AGF Repl Depot, Ft George G. Meade, so that by 31 December 1944 the morning report strength reflected 42 officers, 1 WO, and 656 enlisted men.
In the months of Jan, Feb, Mar and Apr 1945, the officer strength was 38 or 40, the WO remained stable, and enlisted men reached a low of 623 and a high total of 656. May and June 1945 resulted in an increase for both months and, at the end of June 1945, strength stood at 38 officers, 1 WO, and 650 enlisted men.
Strength remained fairly stable until Sept 1945 when a net increase in officer influx resulted in a total of 40 officers, with the WO no longer on hand, and a net decrease of 81 enlisted men brought the EM total down to 574 at the end of September 1945.
No change was reflected for October 1945.
93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion stations
Activated Camp Rucker, AL 24 Mar 44
Assigned to IX CORPS, Ft McPherson, GA
Camp Rucker, AL, 24 Mar 44 to 19 Aug 44
Fort Benning, GA, 19 Aug 44 to 25 Aug 44
Camp Rucker, AL, 25 Aug 44 to 3 Oct 44
Temporary change of station
Departed Camp Rucker, AL, Oct 3, 1944
Arrived bivouac area, Camp Siebert, AL Talladega National Forest, 4 Oct 44
Camp Siebert, AL, 4 Oct 44 to 16 Oct 44
Attached to 65th Infantry Division, Camp Shelby, MS, 16 Oct to 6 Nov 44
Combined training and reinforcing fires during infantry battalion field exercise and infantry battalion combat firing tests
Permanent change of atation
Departed bivouac area, Camp Siebert, AL Oct 16, 1944
Motor convoyed to Camp Shelby, MS; arrived 18 Oct 44
Camp Shelby, MS, 17 Oct 44 to 9 Jan 45
Assigned 9-10 Nov midnight to 24th Det Sp Trs, Second Army, Camp Shelby, MS
Reorganized and redesignated as 93rd Chemical Battalion (Motorized)
38 officers, 1 warrant officer, 633 EM as of 17 Nov 1944
Assigned midnight 30 Nov, reattached to 14th Detachment, Special Troops, Second Army, Camp Shelby, MS
Permanent change of station
Departed Camp Shelby, MS, 9 Jan 1945
Arrived Camp Miles Standish, MA, 11 Jan 1945
Para 10 SO 3, 14th Hq Sp Trs, 2nd Army, Camp Shelby, MS
Shipment Order 9011-A EDCMR, 17 Jan 1945
Camp Miles Standish, MA, 16 Jan to 20 Jan 45
Camp Lucky Strike, France, 30 Jan 45 to 27 Mar 45
Field operations in France and Germany
Camp Lucky Strike, France, 18 Jun 45 to 23 Jun 45
Relieved assignment Third U.S. Army, 12th Army Gp, assigned Normany Base Sec 28 Jun 1945
Camp Miles Standish, MA, 4 Jul 45 to 5 July 45
Fort Bragg, NC, 6 Jul 45 to 20 Oct 45
27th Detachment, Special Troops, Second Army, Ft Bragg, NC
Deactivated 93rd Oct 20, 1945
93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion campaigns
On January 9, 1945, at 1000 hours the 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion boarded a troop train at Camp Shelby, Miss, and headed north to Camp Miles Standish, near Boston, Massachusetts. En route the train made a stop in Bristol, Virginia. At the stop sandwiches and drinks were furnished by the local ladies. The battalion arrived at Camp Miles Standish, Mass, on 11 January 1945.
While waiting to embark overseas, men of the 93rd spent time sightseeing in Boston. At the service club in Boston, one of the men met the movie star that he had a crush on from afar, Diana Lynn, and she gave him an autographed picture of herself.
The 93rd Cml Mortar Bn left Camp Miles Standish, Massachusetts, on 18 January 1945 at 0745 upon call from the Boston port commander. The battalion left Boston harbor on the 18 January 1945 at approximately 1745 on board the Santa Maria with the strains of Don't Fence Me In being played. The English battleship Rodney stayed along side the starboard bow. DE boats protected the outer edges of the convoy. En route to Le Havre, France, the convoy was attacked by German U boats. The sound of depth charges could be heard as they exploded under water.
The North Atlantic Ocean is rough in January. 75 foot waves were plentiful. The propeller of the ship ahead of the Santa Maria came out of the water as the waves rose and fell. The rapid rise and fall had a roller coaster effect, and the yawing and pitching had a serious effect on the stomachs of some of the troops. There were quite a few trips to the rails and some men spent part of the trip in their bunks.
The 93rd arrived at Le Harve, France, ETO, at 1100 hours on 29 January 1945. The battalion departed for Camp Lucky Strike, Camp Barville, France, standing up in 40 by 8 trucks, and arrived there after a very cold trip at 0155 hours, 30 January 1945. The 93rd left Camp Lucky Strike on 4 February 1945 on VOCO (verbal order of the commanding officer). This VOCO was later confirmed by Letter Orders 2-32, Hq, District A, Normandy Base Section, Communication Zone, ETO, dated 7 February 1945.
Hq & Hq Company was stationed at Crasville la Rocquefort, France. Company A was stationed at Le Chateau, France, Company B at Thiedvilla, France, and Company C at Rainfrevilla, France. A liason officer was maintained for the battalion at Camp Lucky Strike, France.
While here, the 93rd CMB was attached to the Fifteenth Army. The 93rd received its orders to move up to Germany and, with its new motorized equipment started out on the long drive from Rouen. On 28 March 1945, the battalion was transferred by VOCO to Laufenselden, Germany. No enemy resistance was encountered.
After the 93rd entered Germany at Trier, some members had their first church service on Easter Sunday. April 1st, in a Protestant church because all the churches around their Chateau in France were Catholic. The men carried
their carbines in church.
The 93rd CMB crossed the Rhine River at the Saint Goar crossing on a pontoon bridge. While the battalion waited its turn to cross, some of the members watched some boats traveling on the river trying to dock on the other side. The current was so swift that the boats had to head upstream from where they wanted to land and drift over to the final spot. There was some confusion after reaching the other side of the bridge on which way to go, left or right, because another outfit was alternating its vehicles with the 93rd. A truck from the other outfit went first, then one of
the 93rd jeeps, then another of the other units trucks and so on. Upon reaching the other side, the other unit's trucks were to go to the right and the 93rd jeeps to the left. Needless to say, due to some misunderstanding a few jeeps went right and until it was realized that the rest of the convoy was not ahead. There was a sigh of relief when, after turning back and after passing some distance past the bridge landing, the rest of the unit had pulled over and was waiting for the strays to show up. Once intact the movement continued.
On 3 April 1945, the 93rd was transferred by VOCO to Neukirchen, Germany. No enemy resistance was encountered. Hostilities officially ended in the European Theater at 0001, 9 May 1945.
Hq & Hq Company departed from Saalfeld, Germany (J5633), at 1725, 15 May 1945, and arrived at Weimar, Germany (J5271), at 1845, 15 May 1945. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was clear, roads were excellent and morale was high.
The battalion departed Weimar, Germany, at 1200 hours on 15 June 1945, destination Camp Lucky Strike, France. The first day's travel of approximately 240 miles placed the battalion in Kirchberg, Germany. Here the battalion bivouacked on a small German military reservation.
Leaving the next morning, June 16th, the battalion crossed the Rhine and going through Luxembourg moved into France. Another bivouac in Soissons, France, a distance of about 250 miles from Kirchberg. Members of other mortar battalions were met here.
Departing Soissons, France, at 0500 the next day, June 17th, the battalion arrived at Camp Lucky Strike, France, a total travel distance from Weimar, Germany, of approximately 755 miles. The stay at Camp Lucky Strike lasted about a week and, at 1500, 24 June 1945, the battalion boarded the Bienville, a small troop transport. Berthed directly in front of the Bienville was the Santa Maria, the ship that had brought the battalion over from the United States. The Beinville sailed at 2100 on 25 June 1945 for the United States.
A July 4th welcome home greeted the battalion as the Beinville moved toward its berth in the harbor at Boston. The battalion disembarked at 1800, boarded a train and arrived back at Camp Miles Standish, its original point of departure through Boston some several months before.
Divided into groups, the men were given their furlough orders and, late on July 5 and 6, the men were on their way to their furlough destinations.
Their furloughs over, the me reassembled at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, before redeployment duty against Japan. On August 17, the men were relieved to find their orders had been cancelled following the surrender of Japan in the preceding week. The battalion was deactivated on October 20, 1945. The men were discharged or reassigned to another military unit.
93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion battles
The 93rd Cml Mort Bn joined VIII Corps in action at Emmelshausen on 29 March 1945. The first company was committed on 3 April 1945. The companies of the battalion were attached to various divisions of the Corps and fought with them until relieved on 20 April 1945. The entire action was characterized by light resistance and lack of great need for the heavy support of which mortars are capable. 1148 rounds (579 HE and 570 WP) were fired by the battalion.
Battalion Headquarters. During the entire action, battalion headquarters stayed in the vicinity of VIII Corps headquarters. Telephone communication with Corps was nearly continuous and liaison was maintained with the Corps chemical officer. Battalion headquarters retained close administrative control with the companies. Regular scheduled visits to the companies by the commanding officer, executive officer and staff officers kept battalion headquarters appraised of the administrative and tactical situation of the mortar companies.
Headquarters Company. The company remained with battalion headquarters at all times. The ammunition sections maintained a battalion ammunition dump of approximately 6000 rounds and moved it forward each time the company moved. They also kept the mortar companies supplied with ample ammunition during the entire period. The supply sections hauled all classes of supplies from the Army dumps to the mortar companies.
Company A. The company was attached to the 65th Infantry Division by operation order of VIII Corps dated 3 April 1945. On that date the company departed the battalion assembly area, vicinity Neukirchen, and reported to an assembly area in the 65th Infantry Division zone at Sontra. On the following day the company was attached to the 259th Infantry Regiment and the platoons further attached to the three battalions of the regiment. On the initial movement into positions, the company was strafed by approximately 50 ME 109 planes. No casualties resulted and the platoons were emplaced in defensive positions in support of the regiment in the vicinity of Mulverstedt.
The company remained attached to the 259th Infantry Regiment until 13 April when it reverted to control of the 65th Infantry Division. At that time the division was placed in corps reserve and the company moved to an assembly area in the vicinity of Friedrichroda. The company was relieved from attachment to the 65th Infantry Division on 16 April and reverted to battalion control.
On 18th April, Company A was attached to the 76th Infantry Division at Limbach and further attached to the 385th Infantry Regiment. Late on 18 April the entire company supported the 385th in an attack on Chemnitz. The company fired into the town scoring hits on factories in the town and starting fires. 111 rounds of HE and 6 rounds of WP were expended during this operation. On 20 April the company again reverted to battalion control and saw no further action during the period. The company lost two men missing in action.
Company B. The company was attached to the 89th Infantry Division by VIII Corps operation order on 3 April. The entire company was attached to the 353rd Infantry Regiment and moved forward in the attack on Eisenach. After Eisenach had been captured, the company moved to support the attack on Rohla on 7 April. Very effective fire was placed on the town that day and the town was taken. 98 rounds of HE and 96 rounds of WP were expended in this action, and the gun positions were attacked both by small arms fire and by five Nazi planes, type not identified.
On 9 April, the company was attached to the 355th Infantry Regiment and moved into firing positions in the vicinity of Mohlberg. On 10 April, the company was attached to the 354th Infantry Regiment and fired WP on two enemy 88 guns. The guns were silenced. On 11 April, the company was attached to the 3rd Battalion of the 354th Infantry Regiment and fired in support of the attack on Hill 518 near Gossel. The mortar position received 88mm fire and the company fired seven concentrations to silence the 88's. The company then moved forward in the attack to the vicinity of Wullersleben. While moving into position, the 1st platoon received 88mm fire which killed one officer (the platoon commanding officer) and one enlisted man, and wounded two enlisted men.
On 11 April, the company fired a smoke screen and two HE concentrations in support of the 3rd Battalion 354th Infantry, expending 357 rounds of WP and 96 rounds of HE. One enlisted man was wounded by sniper fire while in an OP in a church steeple in Wullerleben during this firing. On 14 April the company was again attached to the 353rd Infantry Regiment, with the first and second platoons in direct support of the third battalion, and the third platoon in direct support of the second battalion. Movement at this time was very rapid and no fire was called for.
On 16 April, the company was attached to the 355th Infantry Regiment and further attached to the first battalion. On 17 April, the second platoon fired a number of concentrations on enemy troops and automatic weapons positions. 89 rounds of HE and 2 rounds of WP were expended in these missions. The company remained attached to the 355th Infantry and moved forward during the rapid advance until it was relieved from the 89th Infantry Division on 20 April. The company had two men killed in action and three wounded in action during this period.
Company C. The company was attached to the 87th Infantry Division on 8 April. On 11 April, the company was attached to the 347th Infantry Regiment and moved from a battalion assembly area to the vicinity of Ober Porlitz to support the infantry regiment. The company advanced rapidly with the regiment, prepared to support it at any time.
Positions were occupied to fire on Saalfeld on 13 April but the town capitulated before the fire was requested. The company continued to advance rapidly with the infantry and supported an attack on Schleiz with fire. On 16 April, the platoons were placed in support of the three battalions of the regiment and became part of the battalion combat teams then set up within the regiment. On that day, the third platoon fired on Theoma, destroying buildings and starting fires.
On 18 April, the third platoon moved out to a position along the restraining line with two platoons of infantry to destroy enemy positions east of Theuma. Thirty-three rounds of WP and fourteen rounds of HE were fired during the mission, demolishing the enemy positions. The platoons then returned to their former positions. On 19 April, the second platoon fired in support of a limited attack in the vicinity of Stockigt on houses from which enemy fire had been received. The mission was accomplished. On 20 April, the company was relieved from attached to the 87th Infantry Division and reverted to battalion control.
Hq & Hq Company
Departed Neukirchen, Germany (W1353), by motor convoy at 1200 on 5 April 1945 and arrived at Hersfeld, Germany (H3954) at 1330 on 5 April 1945. Weather was cloudy with occasional light rain. Roads were fair. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Hersfeld, Germany (H3954), at 0930 by motor convoy on 9 April 1945 and arrived at Eisenach, Germany (H8167), at 1330 on 9 April 1945. Weather was clear. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Eisenach, Germany (H8167), at 0800 on 12 April by motor convoy and arrived Wolfis, Germany (J144500), at 1030 on 12 April 1945. Weather was clear. Roads were good. Morale was high. The advance party was fired upon by two enemy snipers but the main body met no enemy resistance.
Departed Wolfis, Germany (J144500), at 1430 on 14 April and arrived at Pfanzwirbach, Germany (J532436), at 1700, 14 April 1945. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was cloudy. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed from Pfanzwirbach, Germany (J532436) at 1045 on 16 April 1945 and arrived at Auma, Germany (J9441) at 1305 on 16 April. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was clear. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Auma, Germany (J9441), at 0910 on 19 April 1945 and arrived at Reichenbach, Germany (K225343), at 1130 on 19 April. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was rainy. Roads were fair. Morale was good. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Reichenbach, Germany (K225343), at 1545 on 20 April 1945 and arrived at Suhl, Germany (J0927), at 2315, 20 April 1945. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was good. Roads were fair. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Suhl, Germany (J0927), at 1100 on 24 April 1945 and arrived at Saalfeld, Germany (J5633), at 1400 on 24 April 1945. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was good. Roads were fair. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Neukirchen, Germany (WH-1353), at 1800 on 4 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Sontra, Germany (H5477), at 0835, on 5 April 1945. Weather was cloudy with light rain. Roads were fair. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Attached to 65th Infantry Division by VOCO on 4 April 1945.
Departed Sontra, Germany (H5477), at 0930 on 5 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Mulverstedt, Germany (H9484), at 1530, 5 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Mulverstedt, Germany (H9484), at 1930 on 7 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Mazza, Germany (H8283), at 0200 on 8 April 1945. Weather was clear. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Mazza, Germany (H8283), at 0700 on 8 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Dippach, Germany (H6260), at 1145, on 8 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Dippach, Germany (H6260), at 1430 on 11 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Friedrichroda, Germany (H9856), at 1900, on 11 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were fair. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Friedrichroda, Germany (H9856), at 0800 on 14 April 1945 and arrived at Dannheim, Germany (J5849), at 1030 on 14 April 1945. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was rainy. Roads were fair. Morale was good. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Dannheim, Germany (J5849), at 1700 on 17 April 1945 and arrived at Auma, Germany (J9441), at 1700 on 17 April 1945. Weather was clear. Roads were excellent. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Auma, Germany (J9441), at 1330 on 17 April 1945 and arrived at Limbach, Germany (K545625), at 1900 on 17 April 1945. Weather was clear. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance encountered. Relieved from attachment to 65th Infantry Division, and attached to 76th Infantry Division.
On 19 April 1945, company participated in attack on Chemnitz with elements of the 385th Infantry. Effective fire was delivered throughout most of the day. Company suffered no casualties.
Departed Limbach, Germany (K545625), at 0930 on 20 April 1945 and arrived at Suhl, Germany (J0927), at 2330 on 20 April 1945. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was clear. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Suhl, Germany (J0927), at 1030 on 28 April 1945 and arrived at Schleusingen, Germany (J135165), at 1200 on 28 April 1945. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was clear. Roads were excellent. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Neukirchen, Germany (WH-1353), at 1700 on 4 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Hersfeld, Germany (H3954), at 2000, on 4 April 1945. Weather was cloudy with an occasional light rain. Roads were fair. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Attached to 89th Infantry Division by VOCO on 4 April 1945.
Departed Hersfeld, Germany (H3954), at 0815 on 5 April 1945 and arrived at Bosserode, Germany (H5864), at 1100, 5 April 1945. Travel was by motor convoy. Weather was cloudy with frequent light rain. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Bosserode, Germany (H5864), at 1330 on 6 April 1945 and arrived at Herda, Germany (R6664), at 1900 on 6 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were fair. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Herda, Germany (R6664), at 1230 on 7 April 1945 and arrived at Ruhla, Germany (H8558), at 1900 on 7 April 1945. Travel was by motor convoy.Weather was rainy. Roads were fair. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Ruhla, Germany (H8558), at 1700 on 8 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Friedrichroda, Germany (H9856), at 0100, on 9 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Friedrichroda, Germany (H9856), at 1915 on 9 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Muhlberg at 2330 on 9 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Muhlberg at 0015 on 11 April 1945 and arrived at Wullersleben, Germany (J345515), at 1400 on 11 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were good. Morale was high. Engaged in the battle at Hill 518, near Gossel, Germany (J209498). No casulties. Engaged in battle near Wullersleben, Germany (J345515), at approximately 1400, on 11 April 1945. Encountered fire from German 88. Enemy gun silenced by mortar fire from Company B mortars. One officer and one enlisted man killed, and three more enlisted men wounded.
On 11 April, the company fired a smoke screen and two HE concentrations in support of the 3rd battalion, 354th Infantry, expending 357 rounds of WP and 96 rounds of HE. One enlisted man was wounded by sniper fire while in an OP in a church steeple in WULLERLEBEN during this firing.
On 14 April, the company was again attached to the 353d Infantry Regiment with the first and second platoons in direct support of the 3rd battalion, and the third platoon in direct support of the 2nd battalion. Movement at this time was very rapid and no fire was called for.
On 16 April, the company was attached to the 355th Infantry Regiment and further attached to the 1st battalion. On 17 April, the second platoon fired a number of concentrations on enemy troops and automatic weapons positions. 89 rounds of HE and 2 rounds of WP were expended in these missions.
Remained attached to the 355th Infantry and moved forward during the rapid advance until it was relieved from the 89th Infantry Division on 20 April.
The company had two men killed in action and three wounded in action during this period.
Departed Neukirchen, Germany (WH1353), by motor convoy at 0700 on 7 April 1945 and arrived at Reichenbach, Germany (N9343), at1100 on 7 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance encountered.
Attached to 87th Infantry Division by VOCO on 7 April 1945.
Departed Reichenbach, Germany (H9343), at 0600 on 11 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Oberporlitz, Germany (J2538), at 1700, on 11 April 1945. Weather was cloudy. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Departed Oberporlitz, Germany (J2538), at 1745 on 12 April 1945 by motor convoy and arrived at Milbitz, Germany (J4038), at 1845 on 12 April 1945. Weather was clear. Roads were good. Morale was high. No enemy resistance was encountered.
Positions were occupied to fire on Saalfeld on 13 April but the town capitulated before the fire was requested. The company continued to advance rapidly with the infantry and supported an attack on Schleiz with fire.
On 16 April, the platoons were placed in support of the three battalions of the regiment and became part of the battalion combat teams then set up within the regiment.
On 16 April, the 3rd platoon fired on Theoma, destroying buildings and starting fires.
On 18 April, the 3rd platoon moved out to a position along the restraining line with two platoons of infantry to destroy enemy positions east of Theuma. Thirty-three rounds of WP and fourteen rounds of HE were fired during the mission, demolishing the enemy positions. The platoons then returned to their former positions.
On 19 April, the 2nd platoon fired in support of a limited attack in the vicinity of Stockigt on houses from which enemy fire had been received. The mission was accomplished.
On 20 April, the company was relieved from attachment to the 87th Infantry Division and reverted to battalion control.
The Final Drive
By the end of January 1945, the Allies had regained the ground lost during the enemy's Ardennes offensive. In February, the 12th Army Group prepared for attack along the Roer and Sauer Rivers, an attack whose impetus would carry to the Rhine. This latter obstacle, the last great defensive barrier for the enemy, was surmounted in March. After that, victory was but a matter of time.
Much of the fighting of February and March involved river crossings. The Roer, the Erft, the Sauer, the Moselle, the Rhine these were the largest rivers which blocked the American forces in their drive to the east. The chemical mortar battalions, by both smoke and high explosive missions, provided valuable support in this series of important operations.
One of the most spectacular smoke operations in Europe involving chemical mortar battalions was staged in the Third Army sector during the XII Corps attack across the Sauer and Our Rivers. This attack, which began on 7 February 1945, was supported by the 91st Chemical Mortar Battalion, commanded by Lt. Col. Roy W. Muth. The 91st Battalion was committed to action in December 1944, a month which marked the beginning of a steady influx of new mortar battalions. By the end of the war the 12th Army Group had a total of twelve, the number previously decided upon for the European theater.
In addition to those units already mentioned, the following chemical mortar battalions saw action with the 12th Army Group: the 89th, commanded by Lt. Col. Donald E. Yanka; the 90th, Lt. Col. Edgar V. H. Bell; the 93rd, Lt. Col. Jacquard Rothschild; the 94th, Lt. Col. Benjamin D. Williams, Jr.; the 95th, Lt. Col. Earl L. Shepherd; the 96th, Lt. Col. Farleigh E. Smith; and the 97th, Lt. Col. Edwin S. S. Hays, Jr. The 6th Army had four battalions.
The period of the Ardennes counter-offensive saw the start of a series of mortar shell malfunctions which were to plague the battalions for most of the winter of 1944-1945. These malfunctions were of two types: barrel bursts, in which the round exploded within the barrel; and muzzle bursts, in which the round prematurely exploded after leaving the barrel but still within the vicinity of the mortar emplacement.
Another factor was the emplacement of weapons in soft ground, a situation which plagued the 86th Battalion in September and October. In some cases the mortar crews of the 86th, after firing only two or three rounds, had to dig through mud to the base plate and haul it out with a jeep. A similar problem was the presence of hard shale rock in the soft clay which provided uneven support for the base plate and produced a shearing effect. The 81st Battalion particularly experienced this difficulty.
Twelfth Army Group
The Headquarters of the Twelfth Army Group was established in London on July 14, 1944, and was given operational control of the United States First and Third Armies on August 1. Its commanding general was Lt. Gen. Omar N. Bradley, who was also commanding general of the United States Army Group. This Army Group had been established on October 19, 1943, to plan United States participation in the forthcoming operation, and although its staff was largely transferred to the Twelfth Army Group in July 1944, it continued to exist on paper as a deception device until activation on October 18, 1944. The Twelfth Army Group, known also as Central Group of Armies, was under operational control of General Montgomery of the Twenty-First Army Group from August 1 to September, and under the Supreme Commander, General Eisenhower, thereafter. On September 5, 1944, the United States Ninth Army was assigned to the Twelfth Army Group. For a short time in late 1944 and early 1945, the First and Ninth Armies were detached for duty with the Twenty-First Army Group.
In the midst of the Ardennes counteroffensive, the United States Ninth Army was assigned to the Twelfth Army Group. It remained with the Group until the end of the combat period. At the time of the surrender of the German forces in May 1945, the four armies of the Twelfth Group First, Third, Ninth and Fifteenth were disposed on a continuous front running over 550 miles across Germany, Czechoslovakia and Austria.
Twelfth Army Group headquarters was entirely American in composition. It was organized in 5 general staff sections, and in 19 special staff sections, one of which was a section for psychological warfare. From mid-August 1944 until mid-May 1945, the headquarters operated on the continent in three areas: The Tactical Headquarters, which was the usual command post group; the Main Headquarters, which contained most of the general staff and special staff sections; and the Rear Headquarters, for supply and maintenance. After the surrender, the staff sections were concentrated in the Main Headquarters, from which they exercised operational control of the Armies until the Group was disbanded on August 1, 1945.
The 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion was assigned to the Third Army. That Army, which originated in the United States before the war, served as one of the major ground combat commands in Europe from March 1944, when its headquarters and troops arrived in England, until after the end of the war in 1945. Commanded by Lt. Gen. George Patton, Jr., the Third Army joined in the combat in Normandy in July, 1944, took Brittany in August, fought the Battle of Moselle in September, conducted the Metz offensive in October and November, and took part in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944 and January 1945. In March 1945, it crossed the Rhine and, in April, it drove through Bavaria and pursued the enemy across the Altuhl, Danube, and Isar Rivers. By May, it had captured Linz in Austria. After the German surrender, the Third Army became an occupation force and, in March 1947, it was disbanded in Europe and reestablished in the continental United States with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.Forcing the Rhine - Frankfurt on Main - Across the Mulde
22 March-21 April 1945
It had long been expected that the Rhine River would form a barrier which might delay forces of Third US Army for a considerable time, and that high casualties could be expected when the initial crossing in the Army zone was made.
Because of the tactical surprise achieved, the initial crossing deserves to be considered one of the most important tactical river crossings during Third US Army operations. The ease which the crossing was made and the rapid expansion of the bridgehead came as a surprise to the world. The crossing was made even before all territory west of the Rhine had been completely mopped up and within 2 days large forces of the XII Corps were well east of the River.
This first assault crossing of any Allied Army across the Rhine River occurred on the night 22-23 March when elements of the 5th Infantry Division, supported by some amphibious tanks of the 748th Tank Battalion crossed the Rhine at Oppenheim. This was strictly an assault crossing made with assault boats, contrasted to the earlier crossing at Remagen where First US Army forces seized the large Ludendorf Bridge intact. By noon of 23 March the entire 5th Infantry Division had crossed, and then the 90th Infantry Division plus one complete combat command of 4th Armored Division crossed. Within 36 hours of this initial crossing, a tread way bridge and a ponton bridge had been completed.
The 26th Infantry Division and the 6th Armored Division came to XII Corps control on 23 March and both prepared to cross the Rhine River. By 24 March, both of these divisions had crossed into the bridgehead area. The 4th Armored Division had passed through the 5th and 90th Infantry Divisions, and had driven 20 miles inland. Darmstadt was by-passed by the 4th Armored Division which drove close to Aschaffenburg on the Main River. Meanwhile the 5th Infantry Division drove up the south bank of the Main River while the 90th Infantry Division, attacked and cleared the important city of Darmstadt.
By 26 March all units of the XII Corps were well beyond the Rhine River. On this day the 6th Armored Division captured a damaged bridge across the Main River, pushing armored infantry elements across into the great industrial city of Frankfurt. Quickly, 5th Infantry Division elements followed, attacking into the heart of the city. Aschaffenburg was bypassed by the 4th Armored which had a bridgehead near the city across the Main River. The 26th Infantry Division was following behind the 4th Armored Division while the 90th Infantry Division swung north from captured Darmstadt to reach the Main River east of Frankfurt. Fighting continued inside Frankfurt where the 5th Infantry Division gradually reduced heavy resistance until 29 March when the city was cleared.
In accordance with a new inter-corps boundary there was a general reshuffling of Third US Army units on 28 March to provide the most effective fighting strengths for the various corps. The 5th Infantry Division and 6th Armored Division were passed to XX Corps control while the 11th Armored Division came to XII Corps from XX Corps and the 71st Infantry Division passed to XII Corps control from Seventh US Army.
The 4th Armored Division was ordered to halt its progress on 29 March to allow the following 26th and 90th Infantry Divisions to close up. Then, during the last two days of the month, it was given the go-ahead signal and drove quickly northeast 75 miles from Frankfurt to Hersfeld which it cleared on 31 March. Another drive was opened on 29 March by the 11th Armored Division in a zone just south of that of the 4th Armored Division, with the manufacturing city of Fulda being taken on 31 March.
At the end of March the supporting 26th and 90th Infantry Divisions were following 11th Armored Division and 4th Armored Division respectively, mopping up enemy which had been by-passed by the speeding armor, and the newly assigned 71st Infantry Division was assembled southeast of Frankfurt, prepared to join in the corps attack.
The VIII Corps assumed command of the 89th Infantry Division on 23 March at which time it had the 76th, 87th and 89th Infantry Divisions. All were prepared to attack across the Rhine. The first VIII Corps crossing occurred near Boppard on 24 March when the 87th Infantry Division crossed in assault boats and rapidly set up a bridgehead 1 mile in depth. Another bridgehead at St Goar was secured the following day by the 89th Infantry Division. Fire support was furnished both divisions by the 76th Infantry Division which remained on the west bank of the River. Generally, resistance was stiffer than it had been in XII Corps zone, but at no time was the issue of success in doubt. The corps was ordered on 26 March to gain and Maintain contact with a planned bridgehead of the XX Corps at Mainz, and to continue its attack to the east. Steady advances were made by the 87th and 89th Infantry Divisions until 27 March when the 76th Infantry Division crossed the Rhine. All three divisions then advanced to the east until 30 March when they reached the eastern limits of their zone. Inter-corps boundaries that were set up on 28 March assigned the VIII Corps the northern part of Army zone between XX Corps on the south and First US Army on the north, this zone, however, ended about 20 miles east of the Rhine, and accordingly VIII Corps was pinched out from further advance. At the end of the month all elements of the Corps were clearing their zone of remaining bypassed enemy troops.
Most XX Corps units were south of the Third - Seventh US Army boundary that was designated on 22 March. These units, however, continued to function south of the boundary for the next two days, at which time they headed north to take over the northern part of Army zone. On 26 March when XX Corps was ordered to seize and secure a bridgehead across the Rhine River in the vicinity of Mainz, and to continue its attack to the east, it consisted of the 65th, 80th and 94th Infantry Divisions, and the 11th Armored Division. On the night 27 - 28 March the 80th Infantry Division crossed the Rhine and Main Rivers in the vicinity of Mainz.
On 28 March XX Corps passed the 11th Armored Division to XII Corps, and received from XII Corps the 5th Infantry Division and 6th Armored Division, both of which were near Frankfurt. The 5th Infantry Division was fighting inside the city against decreasing resistance from air raid wardens, firemen, police and a few troops, while the 6th Armored Division started a drive to the northeast. Simultaneously, contact was made near Wiesbaden by the 80th Infantry Division with the 9th Armored Division (First US Army) which had driven south, and, Wiesbaden completely outflanked, fell to the 80th Infantry Division. Frankfurt, important manufacturing city with a pre-war population of 553,464 was cleared by the 5th Infantry Division on 29 March. At this time the 94th Infantry Division was passed to Seventh US Army.
From 28 to 30 March the 6th Armored Division drove rapidly northeast, reaching positions 6 miles from Kassel, about 100 miles north of Frankfurt. This drive which gained 100 miles in 3 days was one of the fastest in the entire history of Third US Army operations. The 65th and 80th Infantry Divisions moved north behind the armor to share in mopping up operations.
At the end of the month the 6th Armored Division was within 3 miles of Kassel while the 65th and 80th Infantry Divisions were mopping up zone in the rear, and the 5th Infantry Division was continuing to police in the vicinity of Frankfurt.
As April started Third US Army was advancing into the German hinterland with its XX Corps on the north and XII Corps on the south, while its VIII Corps after being pinched out was mopping up to the rear on the north flank between XX Corps and First US Army. Enemy resistance was disorganized all along the front, and nowhere was the enemy able to put up even moderate resistance except at Kassel, where XX Corps forces were held up for 3 days.
During the first two days of April, the 4th and 11th Armored Divisions of XII Corps were parallel to each other, attacking to the east, with the 4th Armored Division on the north. The Werra River was reached and crossed by both armored divisions on 2 April, as the 26th Infantry Division. which had been following 11th Armored Division cleared the important manufacturing town of Fulda The 90th Infantry Division made good gains east of Hersfeld as it pushed behind the 4th Armored Division. Then, on 3 April the 4th Armored Division was passed to VIII Corps control in accordance with a change in the corps boundary which gave VIII Corps a central zone between XX Corps on the north and XII Corps in the south. The XII Corps line-up as of 3 April included the 11th Armored Division followed closely by the 26th Infantry Division with the 90th Infantry Division on the north flank and the 71st Infantry Division in the rear.
Orders were issued by the Army Commander to XII Corps on 5 April to consolidate its positions along the line Oberhof - Meiningen, and then attack southeast while Maintaining contact with Seventh US Army. Up to this time the corps attack had been to the east. Meiningen` was cleared by the 26th Infantry Division the same day, and then the 11th Armored Division launched its spearheading attack to the southeast. By 7 April the 71st Infantry Division was on the corps south flank, the 11th Armored Division in the center and the 90th Infantry Division on the north while the 26th Infantry Division was mopping up in the rear. During the next three days the Corps advanced an average of 5 miles per day throughout its zone. On 9 April the 11th Armored Division moved to the Corps south flank, while the 26th Infantry Division took over the central part of zone and the 90th Infantry Division was on the north, while the 71st Infantry Division mopped up in the rear.
Coburg was cleared on 10 April by the 11th Armored Division while Neustadt fell to the same Division the following day. Good gains were made by all units of the Corps during the next three days until 14 April when the important city of Bayreuth was taken by the 11th Armored Division on the Corps south flank. HOF less than 10 miles from Czechoslovakia was captured on 15 April by the 90th Infantry Division at which time the Corps attack was practically halted - although patrols of the 90th Infantry Division crossed the Czechoslovakian border on 16 April. Earlier, on 13 April orders were received from Twelfth US Army Group which ordered the Army to stop its attack after reaching the line Bayreuth - Hof - Plauen - Wilkau - Rocklitz - Zwick-Mulde River.
Now, as XII Corps was lined up along its part of this restraining line, it improved its positions and continued patrolling. Orders were given the Corps on 17 April to pass the 71st Infantry Division to Seventh US Army, to assume command of the 97th Infantry Division, and then to continue its attack to the southeast. A movement south along the Czechoslovakian border was started on 18 April. By 21 April when this campaign came to an end, XII Corps units had driven south as far as Hirschau and Weiden in the drive along the Czechoslovakian border toward Austria.
At the beginning of April, VIII Corps (76th., 87th and 89th Infantry Divisions) was mopping up in a zone where they had been pinched out by the northern drive of XX Corps. On 3 April a new- inter-corps boundary was set up which gave VIII Corps the central part of zone. At this time the 4th Armored Division from XII Corps and the 65th Infantry Division from XX Corps both of which were functioning in the new VIII Corps zone came to VIII Corps control. The 4th Armored Division which had been attacking to the east under XII Corps was driving toward the important city of Gotha, which it cleared on 4 April. Rapid movement to the new zone was made by the 87th and 89th Infantry Divisions while the 76th Infantry Division passed to XX Corps control. The 4th Armored Division was constrained from further advance on 5 April to allow other units to catch up in their mopping up operations. At this time 4th Armored Division was well in advance of other units while the 65th Infantry Division was on the north flank, and the 87th and 89th Infantry Divisions were mopping up in rear. By 8 April when the 4th Armored Division was passed to XX Corps, other units had closed up to forward positions and were ready to jump off on their continued attack to the east.
VIII Corps was deployed by 9 April with its 89th and 87th Infantry Divisions north and south respectively on the front and its 65th Infantry Division in the rear. Then, on 10 April the 87th and 89th Infantry Divisions opened a joint attack to the east, clearing Armstadt. Bad Berka was taken two days later as the two divisions made crossings of the Saale River. Without an armored division to spearhead its attack, VIII Corps was unable to progress as either the XII or XX Corps which flanked it.
Twelfth US Army Group orders of 13 April which gave Third US Army orders to stop its advance called upon VIII Corps to stop at the line Plauen -Zwick-Mulde River. The important city of Zwickau was cleared on 16 April, and by 17 April the Corps had reached its restraining line from Plauen to Zwick-Mulde River in zone. During all of this drive the 65th Infantry Division had been in rear areas, either mopping up or in reserve.
Orders of 17 April provided that VIII Corps would pass the 65th Infantry Division to XX Corps, and would receive the 4th and 6th Armored Divisions from XX Corps; also that it would extend its responsibility to cover the XX Corps zone, and be prepared to pass to control of First US Army. All units patrolled during the following 4 days, until 22 April, at which time the VIII Corps passed to control of First US Army with the 76th, 87th and 89th Infantry Divisions and the 6th Armored Division, while the 4th Armored Division went into Twelfth US Army Group Reserve. At this time the VIII Corps had the northern zone all the way from Plauen north to a point north of Chemnitz.
At the start of April. XX Corps' 6th Armored Division, followed closely by the 65th and 80th Infantry Divisions was besieging Kassel, an important railroad and manufacturing center at the northernmost part of Army zone. The 80th Infantry Division passed through the armor and entered the city, allowing the 6th Armored Division, followed by the 65th Infantry Division to turn east. Far to the rear the 5th Infantry Division policed in the vicinity of Frankfurt. Perhaps the heaviest fighting during this campaign occurred inside Kassel as the 80th Infantry Division overcame resistance after 3 days of heavy fighting, and took the city on 4 April. By that date the 6th Armored Division had swept 45 miles to the east, and had taken Muhlausen. The 76th Infantry Division passed to Corps control on 4 April from VIII Corps, at which time the 13th Armored Division also came to Corps control, but never reached Corps zone before being passed to First US Army on 7 April.
Like the 4th and 11th Armored Divisions, the 6th Armored Division was restrained on 5 April from further advance to allow the supporting infantry to close up behind the armor. As soon as the 80th Infantry Division could be relieved by First US Army units in the Kassel area, it moved southeast to join, in the Corps attack. No further attack was made for several days while mopping up continued. The 6th Armored Division maintained a reconnaissance screen north and east of captured Muhlausen. On 8 April the 4th Armored Division was passed to Corps control from VIII Corps.
A major corps jump-off occurred on 10 April when the 6th Armored Division passed through the 76th Infantry Division in the northern part of zone, and the 4th Armored Division passed through the 80th Infantry Division in the southern part of zone. Both armored divisions attacked sharply to the east while the corresponding infantry divisions mopped up behind them.
On 11 April the 6th Armored Division captured bridges across the Salle River intact while the 4th Armored Division after by-passing the important cities of Erfurt and Weimar was besieging Jena. Determined resistance inside Erfurt thwarted immediate capture of the city by the 80th Infantry Division, which however captured Weimar, and then cleared Erfurt the following day. The attack of the 6th Armored Division was so rapid that the 76th Infantry Division which followed it, was unable to keep up, but a large number of by-passed enemy were rounded up as the 76th Infantry Division pushed as rapidly as possible behind the smashing armor.
Some elements of the 80th Infantry Division reached Jena on 12 April, following the 4th Armored Division around that city so that the latter Division could renew its attack. On 13 April the 4th Armored Division bypassed Gera, and drove to the Zwick-Mulde River, while some elements of the 80th Infantry Division captured Jena and other elements of the division entered Gera. To the north the Weisse Elster River was crossed by the 6th Armored Division while the 76th Infantry Division accelerated its movement to the east in mop-up operations.
The aforementioned orders from higher headquarters on 13 April prohibited the Corps from further advance as it had reached its part of the Army's restraining line, but in mop-up operations the 76th Infantry Division captured Kayna on 15 April while the 80th Infantry Division cleared Gera on 14 April, and Glauchau and Crimmitschau on 15 April. Positions were maintained until 18 April when the Army ordered XX Corps to pass control of its zone to VIII Corps and also to relinquish control of the 4th and 6th Armored Divisions, and the 76th Infantry Division. The Corps was further ordered to assume command of the 65th and 71st Infantry Divisions and the 13th Armored Division, and with these plus its 80th Infantry Division to take over a new zone far to the south where it could relieve elements of Seventh US Army. By 20 April the 65th Infantry Division had begun to attack after passing through Seventh US Army units while the 71st Infantry Division was driving south from a vicinity south of captured Bayreuth. Neumarkt was cleared on 21 April by the 65th Infantry Division as the 80th Infantry Division closed in Nurnberg and went into SHAEF Reserve. The assigned 13th Armored Division continued its movement to the new corps zone.
On 31 March the 13th Armored Division and the 70th Infantry Division came to Army control for policing of rear areas only. They were used in this capacity west of the Rhine River until 5 April when the 13th Armored Division moved east of the Rhine River to police in an area near Hoxberg. The 5th Infantry Division was relieved from XX Corps and passed to Army control on 4 April, continuing its policing duties, however, in and about Frankfurt. Then on 7 April the 5th Infantry Division (less 11th Infantry) was passed to control of First US Army while the 13th Armored Division also was passed to First US Army control. Control of the 11th Infantry (5th Infantry Division) was passed to First US Army on 9 April.
While policing west of the Rhine River was continued by the 70th Infantry Division, the 474th Infantry Regiment (Separate) was assigned to Army control with the mission of protecting Army Headquarters in the Hersfeld area. The area of the 70th Infantry Division was increased to include a considerable area west of the Rhine River.
On 17 April the 16th Armored Division was assigned to Third US Army, Then, on 20 April the 474th Infantry Regiment (Separate) was ordered to move to Erlangen to protect Army Headquarters in its new area. When this campaign ended on 21 April, the 70th Infantry Division was policing east and west of the Rhine, while the 474th Infantry Regiment (Separate) was protecting Army Headquarters in the vicinity of Erlangen, and the 16th Armored Division was continuing its movement to Army area.
The entire campaign was a period of aggressive movement, it was featured originally by successful assault crossings of the Rhine River as shown below:
Crossing site Date Division & Corps Oppenheim 23 March 5th Infantry Division, XII Corps Boppard 24 March 87th Infantry Division, VIII Corps St Goar 25 March 89th Infantry Division, VIII Corps Mainz 27 March 80th Infantry Division, XX Corps
At first the corps were lined up with XII Corps on the south, XX Corps in the center and VIII Corps on the north, but as XX Corps swung north in the last few days of March, the VIII Corps was pinched out. It was assigned a new zone several days later in the central area so that XX Corps was on the north and XII Corps on the south. Armored elements of all three corps raced forward so fast during the early days of April that they had to be restrained to allow following infantry divisions to catch up with them in mop-up operations.
By order of the Supreme Commander on 13 April the Army was required to stop its advance at a line Bayreuth - Hof - Plauen - Zwick- Mulde River. No further advance to the east was made following attainment of this line through-out zone. Other orders from higher headquarters on 17 April provided that Third US Army would switch its zone of action to the south in order to drive south toward the Czechoslovakian border into Austria with the object of meeting the Russian forces near Linz, Austria. Under the provisions of this order Third US Army was to receive both the III and XVIII Airborne Corps, but later orders revoked the assignment of the XVIII Airborne Corps before it had began movement to Third US Army.
Toward the end of the campaign a rapid shift to the south, reminiscent of the movements at the early part of the Ardennes Campaign, took place. XX Corps surrendered its zone to VIII Corps which passed to control of First US Army, XII Corps attacked from its positions in the Hof - Bayreuth area to the south, and III Corps came to Army zone, assuming positions on the Army right (west) flank. The latter corps was still moving into positions as the campaign ended.
During this highly successful campaign Third US Army drove from the Rhine River to central Germany, south to the Czechoslovakian border, captured 12,400 square miles of territory and liberated the following important cities shown with their pre-war populations:
Frankfurt 553,464 Kassel 175,000 Wiesbaden 170,000 Erfurt 140,000 Darmstadt 115,196 Plauen 113,000 Zwickau 87,000 Offenbach 85,000 Gera 83,000 Jena 57,000 Weimar 49,000 Gotha 48,000 Eisenach 45,000 Hof 43,000 Muhlhausen 39,000
At the end of the campaign there was no doubt in the minds of any that War in Europe was about to end. Other Allied Armies made sweeping gains throughout the period, and, although none penetrated to such a depth as did Third US Army, all took record tolls of prisoners and swept the disorganized enemy everywhere in front of them. As evidence of the disorganization of the enemy the following losses of Third US Army are contrasted to enemy losses during the period.
Category Army losses Enemy losses Killed 1,757 14,300 Wounded 5,885 31,200 Missing 782 unknown Prisoners of War unknown 240,661
That the enemy losses are over 30 times as large as those of Third US Army is evidence of the complete mastery of Third US Army during this stage of operations right in Germany's heart. One interesting example of the disorganization of the enemy during this campaign can be shown by his inability to remove priceless art objects, over 100 tons of gold bullion and currency of many nations from an unguarded salt mine near Gotha. This treasure was found on 7 April by soldiers of the 90th Infantry Division.
Activities of XIX Tactical Air Command were featured by mighty blows against the once great Luftwaffe. Against losses of 59 planes, the Command destroyed 185 planes in the air and 601 on the ground. As the area held by the enemy shrank, his planes were forced to use a few concentrated air-fields where they presented excellent targets for fighter bombers. During the 31 days of this campaign, XIX Tactical Air Command was able to fly in strength on 30 days, being grounded by inclement weather only one day. In 1260 missions, 12,304 sorties were flown and 1392 tons of bombs were dropped. Among other claims 10,774 motor vehicles, 633 armored vehicles and tanks, 1446 locomotives, and 11,685 railway cars were destroyed or damaged while 340 railroads and highways were cut and 199 marshaling yards were attacked.
Lineage Organized 26-29 November 1918 in the Regular Army at Montignysur-Aube (Cote D'Or), France, as Headquarters, VIII Army Corps. Demobilized 20 April 1919 in France. Reconstituted 29 July 1921 in Organized Reserves as Headquarters, VIII Corps. Withdrawn 1 October 1933 from the Organized Reserves and allotted to the Regular Army. Activated 14 October 1940 at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Redesignated 1 January 1941 as Headquarters, VIII Army Corps. Redesignated 19 August 1942 as Headquarters, VIII Corps. Inactivated 15 December 1945 at Camp Gruber, Oklahoma. Redesignated 30 October 1957 as Headquarters, VIII United States Army Corps. Activated 20 November 1957 at Austin, Texas. Inactivated 1 April 1968 at Austin, Texas.
The 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion joined the VIII Corps in action at Emmelshausen on 29 March 1945.
On the first of April, the VIII Corps had reached a pinch-out boundary west of the Frankfurt - Giesen autobahn and was awaiting further orders. Contact had been established with the V Corps of the First Army on the left flank in the vicinity of Giessen(M6621), and the boundary between the XX and VIII Corps of the Third Army ran northeast from the Wiesbaden area to the vicinity of Usingen(M5693) and on north to Giessen. Disposed along the limiting line from left to right flank were the 87th, 76th, and the 89th Infantry Divisions. The 6th Calvary Group was patrolling to the front of and in the areas of the 76th and 87th Divisions.
VIII Corps troops continued to clear towns in the forward areas and to mop up scattered remnants of enemy, some of whom were attempting to infiltrate back to German lines. The only aggressive enemy action was an ambush of one of our patrols near M6395. Enemy in contact were remnants of the 6th SS Mtn and the 276th Infantry Divisions with miscellaneous GHQ, AA, and Engineer outfits. The 76th Division cleared Usingen (M5693) during the night of 31 March - 1 April, thus eliminating a group of determined SS troops which had held out in this wooded area after being bypassed by the V Corps. At 0630, Anspach (M5588) and Westerfeld (M5690) were reported clear; Pfaffenwiesbach (M6293), Friedrichstahl (M6294) and Wehrheim (M5989) were being occupied. Elements of the 304th Infantry continued to protect Rhine River bridges at Boppard and St Goar.
Task Force Fickett - which was composed of elements of the 6th Calvary Group, a battalion of artillery and two companies of TDs, and one company of engineers and two companies of infantry from the 76th Division, and which had crossed the Rhine and advanced east in the zones of the 76th and 87th Divisions to cut the Bad Neuheim-Giessen highway - was dissolved and elements returned to their parent organizations. With the exception of Troops A and B, which were acting as prison guards, the 6th Calvary Group closed in assembly areas. The 6th Calvary Squadron was patrolling the autobahn from 6519 to 6507.
On 2 April, all units continued patrolling and combing the rear areas. Elements of the 304th Infantry were released from the mission of guarding Rhine River bridges and were enroute to join the 76th Division. Field Order Number 18 eliminated the Corps pinch-out boundary in the vicinity of Giessen. It was planned to bring the VIII Corps up and give it a zone between the XX and XII Corps which were operating to the northeast, east, and southeast. After relieving elements of the XX Corps on the left and the XII Corps on the right, VIII Corps was to continue the advance east, where the 4th Armored Division was on the loose near Gotha and Ohrdruf.
The 89th Division was to pass through elements of the XX and XII Corps and establish and maintain contact with the 65th Infantry Division on the left and with XII Corps on the right; protect the Corps right flank and continue the advance. The 65th Infantry Division was to pass from the XX Corps to control of the VIII Corps and continue the advance. It was also to establish and maintain contact with the XX Corps on the left and protect the left flank of the VIII Corps. The 76th Division was to move to the vicinity of Homberg (H1772) and to pass to control of the XX Corps upon arrival. The 87th Division was to await orders in its present location. The 6th Calvary Group was to move immediately to the vicinity of Alsfeld (H0840) and pass to temporary control of XX control upon arrival.
On the 3rd of April, Corps troops continued their movement in preparation for a resumption of the offensive in a new area. The 6th Calvary Group closed in a new assembly area near Muhlbach (M2860) and at 0200 assumed responsibility for the sector previously occupied by the 3rd Calvary Group. This sector extended from Rotenburg (H3954) to Hersfeld (H3954) and was under control of the XX Corps. Elements of the 347th Infantry, 87th Division, departed for the XII Corps area at 0300 to engage enemy troops behind the XII Corps CP. The 76th Division began moving to the XX Corps zone and was to pass to control of that Corps upon arrival. The VIII Corps CP moved from Diez and opened at Alsfeld (H0840) at 1600.
VIII Corps Operations Memorandum Number 40, which was issued on the 3rd, established another limiting line at Mulhausen (H90993) - Langensalza (J0382) - Gotha (J0865). This general line was to be held by armor and infantry alike and only patrols were to operate east of it. The 4th Armored Division and the 6th Calvary Group were to pass to VIII Corps control at 2400. Upon relief by infantry at the limiting line, the 4th Armored, which was to come to the VIII Corps from the XII Corps, was to await further orders. The 6th Calvary Group was to operate in rear of division zones and reduce any enemy pockets in the Corps zone. The boundary between the 89th and 65th Divisions was changed to include Bebra (H4465) in the 89th sector.
On the 4th of April, scattered enemy forces continued to oppose the Corps advance. Ambush activity and small enemy groups were reported in rear areas, and enemy aircraft again harassed our forward elements and traffic on the autobahn. Gotha (J0965) was captured against moderate resistance, Ohrdruf (J1152) was occupied later in the day, and resistance continued in the Eisenach (H8267) area.
The 4th Armored Division, which came under Corps control at 032400, continued its drive to the east in two columns. CCB in the north encountered practically no opposition until reaching Gotha. Here fighting by CCB and elements of RCT 355, 89th Division, continued until surrender at 1115. CCA in the south advanced against scattered small arms and anti-tank fire, blown bridges, and demolitions, and captured Ohrdruf. The location of one of the smaller but famous German concentration camps, Ohrdruf began, in the Corps area, a mass liberation of political and war prisoners which continued until the end of the war. CCA consolidated its positions and occupied the high ground to the east, and CCR, which had assisted CCA, occupied high ground to the east of Gotha.
In the 89th Division during the morning, elements of the 353rd Regiment motorized moved up to attack Eisenach (H8267) and relieve elements of the 90th Division. The 89th Reconnaissance Troop screened the left sector of the zone near H4964 for the 354th Infantry.
The 65th Infantry Division, which had passed to VIII Corps control at 1030, reported short fire fights with small, disorganized enemy groups. Elements of the 259th Infantry moved to the high ground at 7976 and 6380 and the RCT 261 was assembled near H6290. The 260th, assembled in the vicinity of H6282, prepared to move forward by motor and shuttling.
The 87th Division moved by motor to an assembly area near Friedwale (H4955) in the zone of the 89th Division. At 1230, the 1st Bn, 347th Infantry reverted to VIII control from XII Corps where it had been temporarily committed. The 6th Calvary Group mopped up by-passed pockets of resistance west of the Fulda River behind the infantry divisions.
On the 5th of April, the enemy offered light to moderate resistance which consisted of small arms, automatic weapons, and some light caliber artillery fire. Two enemy ambushes were reported and an estimated 78 enemy aircraft participated in raids on Hersfeld(H3954). VIII Corps CP closed at Alsfeld and opened at Hersfeld at 1400.
The 65th Division encountered light opposition and cleared Langensalza (J0382) late in the period. Resistance in the south of the Corps sector was more determined. The 89th Division cleared a pocket seven kilometers southwest of Langensalza quickly, but 300 stragglers organized under SS officers held out at Fortha (H7563) until 1715. Enemy continued to hold Eisenach (H8067), after negotiations for surrender with the bourgomeister and a Wehrmacht major were rejected by SS officers. The 6th Calvary Group reported no resistance from stragglers in rear areas.
Operations Memorandum Number 41 changed the Corps boundaries so that the old south boundary became, generally, the north boundary and the Corps zone became the former zone of the XII Corps. With the 89th Division on the left and the 87th Division on the right, the Corps was to clear enemy from its zone to the J12 vertical grid line, patrol only in the area beyond this limiting line, and be prepared to advance east. The 87th Division was to relieve elements of the 90th Division, and the 89th Division was to screen the Langensalza - Gotha line with not less than one battalion until relieved by XX Corps. The 65th Division, to remain in position until relieved by the XX Corps and the 89th Division, was to be prepared to move to an assembly area near H6363. The 4th Armored Division was to remain in position until relieved by elements of the XX Corps. The 6th Calvary Group was to assemble near Berneburg (H5073) early on 6 April and be prepared to move to Corps zone on short notice.
On 6 April, patrols from the 65th Division drew small arms and bazooka fire from infantry occupying hastily prepared positions five kilometers east and northeast of Langensalza (J0382). The 4th Armored Division reported the same kind of opposition near Fredricksroda (H9955), received sporadic medium and light caliber artillery fire near Ohrdruf (J1152) during the afternoon, and found enemy constructing road blocks near Crawinkel (J1547).
Enemy forces in Eisenach (H8067) resisted the 89th Division until 1300, after negotiations for surrender during the morning were again opposed by SS troops. At 1730, the 89th reported clashes with enemy troops near the road junction at H858664, and around 2030 strong small arms and bazooka resistance was met near Ruhla (H8558), Thal (H8760) and Wothel (H8665). The 87th Division, out of contact with the enemy, picked up several stragglers who offered no resistance.
During the day, Corps troops were engaged in moving to areas specified by Operations Memorandum Number 41, issued on 5 April. Because of continued pressure, the 65th was not relieved and the XX Corps alerted the 6th Armored Division to be ready to assist the division. The 90th Division of the XII Corps was completely relieved by the 87th in the southern part of the VIII Corps sector. The 89th Division began pulling into its new zone. The 354th Infantry moved to the vicinity of Waltershausen (H9859), the 355th to the vicinity of Ohrdruf, and the 353rd near Eisenach(h8067). The 4th Armored Division was to assemble in its present location as SHAEF Reserve.
Field Order 19, dated 7 April 1945
Under Field Order Number 19, VIII Corps was to consolidate along the general line Gotha (J-0965) - Oberhof (J-1138) and, on Army order, continue to advance to the East and Southeast in Z.
89 Inf Div with attached units, 550 AAA AW Bn, 602 TD Bn (SP), 707 Tk Bn and Co B, 93 Cml Bn, was to continue attack, clear enemy in Z (overlay), and consolidate along general line Schwabhausen, (J-1058) - Stutzhaus (J-1047). Relieve elements of the 4th Armd Div in Z. Maintain contact with enemy by patrols and establishing outposts in contact with enemy to front. Resume attack H-hour D-day, advance east and defeat enemy encountered in Z. Maintain contact with XX Corps on left (north) flank; protect Corps left (north) flank.
87 Inf Div with attached units, 549 AAA AW Bn, 735 Tk Bn, 607 TD Bn (SP) and Co C, 93 Cml Bn, was to continue attack, clear enemy in Z (overlay) and consolidate along the general line Stuzhaus (J-1047) - Oberhof (J-1138). Maintain contact with enemy by patrols and establish outposts in contact with enemy in front. Resume attack H-hour D-day, advance east and southeast and defeat enemy encountered in Z. Maintain contact with 89th Inf Div on left (north) flank and with XII Corps on right (south) flank; protect Corps right (south) flank.
65 Inf Div with attached units, 546AAA AW Bn, 808 TD Bn (SP), 748 Tk Bn and Co A, 93 Cml Bn, was to assemble vicinity of Berka (H-6362) and await orders in Corps reserve. One battalion, motorized, will be held for movement on short notice. Use sufficient force, but not to exceed one regiment, to follow the assault divisions and comb the Corps area for enemy who may be bypassed, hiding out, and stragglers. This operation to begin from division assembly area and work east. Be prepared to stage forward in Corps Z of advance and to protect Corps line of communications. On Corps order, pass through leading elements 89 and 87 Inf Divs in Z (overlay), attack east and defeat enemy encountered.
On the 7th of April at daybreak, 800-1000 enemy with 14-18 tanks launched a strong counterattack near Struth (H7994) and at 0930 re-occupied the town. Heavy fighting continued until noon, at which time the 65th Division, with the assistance of the 6th Armored Division of the XX Corps and friendly aircraft, repulsed the enemy. Half of his force was either killed or captured, nine of his tanks were destroyed, and the remainder of the force retired in disorder to the north and northwest. Sniper fire continued active at scattered points throughout the 65th Division area.
The 89th Division continued to move into the new zone in the northern part of the Corps sector. An enemy pocket developed in this area when the 4th Armored, advancing in the northern part of the Corps sector, and the 11th Armored, operating in the XII Corps to the right of the VIII Corps, reached the Gotha - Ohrdruf and the Oberdof (J1138) - Zella Mehlis (J0635) areas but did not establish contact. Enemy defending the general line H8764 - H8459 - H8665 with heavy small arms, automatic weapons, and panzerfaust fire offered stubbon resistance throughout the day. The 353rd Infantry cleared resistance at Wutha (H8665) and Ruhla (H8558) in this area, and the 354th, which had moved around the 353rd from the left, cleared Waltershausen (H9959) and Rodichen (J0058) during the period. At 1700, the 354th was heavily engaged by enemy defending a road block near H988561. The 355th motorized moved from the Gotha area, to which it had advanced with the 4th Armored, to positions north of Ohrdruf.
In the southern part of the Corps zone, the 87th Division advanced against light small arms and bazooka fire until late in the afternoon, when the enemy increased their determination to defend the vicinity of Tambach (J0143). Elements of the 347th Infantry passed the 345th on the right and established contact with the 11th Armored, with the XII Corps at Oberhof (J1138). At midnight, enemy attacked Oberhof unsuccessfully, but strong resistance was maintained against the 345th in the Tambach area.
In the 4th Armored Division area, sporadic light caliber artillery fire from Crawinkel (J1547) fell in the vicinity of Ohrdruf (J1152) during the afternoon and evening. Otherwise little enemy activity was reported as the 4th Armored maintained its positions, awaiting relief by the 80th Division of the XX Corps. The 6th Calvary Group was assembling near Berneburg (H5075).
During the 8th of April, the 87th and 89th Divisions continued their advance to the restraining line J12. Opposition still emanated from enemy pockets in the 89th sector and from enemy groups holding key defensive positions in the 87th sector. The 65th Division, which was being relieved by the 76th Division, was assembling near H6363. Considerable abandoned equipment was found by the 65th near Struth after the unsuccessful enemy counterattack of the previous day. Kella (H6395) and Volksroda (H6938) were occupied unopposed. The 4th Armored was partially relieved by the 80th and 89th Divisions, and the 6th Calvary Group assembled in the general vicinity of H8661.
In the 89th Division sector, enemy pockets offered stubbon resistance throughout the day as our forces closed in on and drove them from towns and villages. In the area including Friedrichroda (H9955), Cabarz (H9457) and Tabarz (H9556) very determined small arms and automatic weapons resistance was encountered at road blocks and entrances to towns. Friedrichroda was cleared during the afternoon; Cabarz and Tabarz were cleared near the end of the period. Another area of resistance was along the general line H8764 - H8599. Opposition was particularly heavy against our drive east in the vicinity of Seebach(H8960) and Schmerbach (H9157), but both towns were occupied during the afternoon. Schonau, Kalbersfeld, Langeharn, Catterfelm, Katterfeld, and Dapolarz were also occupied against strong rsisitance during the night of 8-9 April. In the forward zone near Ohrdruf (J1151), troops reported sporadic artillery fire.
In the 87th Division zone at Oberhof (J1138), the counterattack launched at 072345 by enemy employing automatic weapons and panzerfaust was repulsed at 0130. At 0630, the enemy raiding party in the vicinity of Tambach (J0238) was dispersed and after stiff fighting until noon the town was captured. Elements of the 345th Infantry cleared Dietharz (J0348) and advanced to J041175. Several small enemy groups armed with panzerfaust and small arms were engaged elsewhere in the zone.
On 9 April, the 87th and the 89th Divisions continued toward the Corps restraining line, clearing and consolidating their areas as they advanced. Against fairly heavy resistance, the 89th ejected enemy from several towns. A determined group held Finsterbergen (J0052) from 082100 to 0991000, and at Georgenthal (J0652) stiff resistance was maintained until 0900. Crawinkel (J1547) remained a source of strong resistance, Wolfis (J1450) received SP fire during the morning and late afternoon, and reports of single and small groups of tanks were frequent during the period. At the end of the day, the 89th held a general line J140535 - 115520 - 110500 - 145505 - 055495.
In the 87th sector, enemy offered moderate resistance in the form of road blocks defended with small arms, machine gun and bazooka fire. Scattered artillery fire was ineffective and stragglers caused no trouble on apprehension, but one tank near Schwarzwald (J1045) delayed our troops some. At the close of the period, the 87th had advanced elements to J080460 and J007475.
The 261st Infantry of the 65th was enroute to the division area in the vicinity of H840269. At 1300, the VIII Corps CP opened at Eisenach. The 4th Armored Division passed to the control of the XX Corps at 1800.
On the 10th of April, the 87th and 89th Divisions launched a limited objective attack generally from the limiting line set by VIII Corps Operations Memorandum Number 40, issued on 5 April. Particularly heavy resistance from both light and heavy arms was reported throughout the period. In the northern part of the Corps sector, Arnstadt (J2653) was reached by the 89th and a bridge over the Gera River was captured intact. Artillery fire increased noticeably during the day and fire received in Holzhausen (J2155) was estimated to be 105mm and 170mm. In the southern sector, the enemy offered moderate to heavy resistance to road blocks and key terrain features with light weapons.
The 89th Division attacked at 0800. The 255th Infantry on the left captured Muhlburg (J1756), Bittstadt (J2253) and Arnstadt, advanced to high ground 1 kilometer east of Arnstadt, and reached the limiting line on capturing Ridisleben (J2756). Elements of the 354th advance east from Wolfis(J1450), captured Espenfeld(J2250) and reached the high ground on the limiting line at J2251, while other elements advanced west through Wolfis and entered Gossel(J19949). Heavy small arms and automatic weapons resistance from enemy entrenched in cliffs from J2549 to J2651 was encountered at 2130. The 1st Bn, 354th moved north from the wooded area on the division right boundary near J1248 to an area 1 kilometer south of Ohrdruf (J1151). In the extreme southern part of the division zone, dug-in infantry with tanks near the woods at J1248 resisted very heavily with small arms and automatic weapons fire supported by artillery fire from the vicinity of Crawinkel (J1547) and Leibenstein (J1945). The 353rd was assembling near Ohrdruf.
The 87th Division attacked at 0630 against small arms, automatic weapons and some tank fire. In spite of woods and extremely rugged terrain, the 345th Infantry reached areas one kilometer west of Crawinkel, one kilometer east of Stutzhaus (J1047), and 1½ kilometers southeast of Schwarzwald (J1045). The 1st and 3rd Bns, 347th remained along the Oberhof - Schwarzwald highway (J1038 - 1045) until late afternoon. From there, the 3rd Battalion advanced seven kilometers east and the 1st Battalion advanced 6 kilometers. The 2nd Battalion moved forward on the left flank of the regimental zone to three kilometers east of the highway. The 346th assembled in the vicinity of Tambach (J0247).
The remaining elements of the 65th Division closed in the division assembly areanear H8062 at 1500. The 260th Infantry advanced and cleared the sector from the assembly area near Markshul (H7359) to a line three kilometers northeast of Steinbach (H8551) - Bratterode (H9050) - Schmakalden (H9247) - Reichenbach(H9343). Plans were made by the division to move one RCT to the vicinity of Friedrichroda (H9954).
Enemy resistance on 11 April was moderate in most of the Corps zone with scattered artillery fire. Wizleben (9J3762) in the 89th Division sector was heavily defended with intense small arms and automatic weapons fire. Crawinkel (J1547) in the south was captured against moderate resistance, but as the period ended the 87th Division encountered heavy fire near Stadtilm (J3647).
Task Force Sundt (composed of the 607th TD Bn Hq; B Co, 607th TD Bn; 735th TD Bn; K Co, 346th Inf, 87th Div; 87th Recon Troop; 2nd Plat, B Co, 312th Engr Bn) of the 87th Division moved through the 89th Division zone at 0630 to attack east from Arnstadt (J2554). After passing through the town at 0830, however, the Force was ordered west to reduce resistance in front of the 345th and 347th Regiments in position near J2038 and J1641. When Task Force Sundt reached J2944 the order was changed and the Force then advanced east to the vicinity of Stadtilm (J3599469). Elements of the 346th Infantry moved out of the regimental area at J0247 to follow Task Force Sundt, passed through the 345th, and advanced to J2946 and J3344. The 345th entered Crawinkel (J1547) at 0830 and elements began clearing the town and neighering woods, while other elements advanced to J135440. By the end of the day the 345th had advanced to Plaue (J2347) and J2144. The 347th attacked at 0645 and advanced to J2940 and J3242. During the day the 87th cleared ten towns, but at 1845 it encountered heavy resistance along the line Stadtilm, Griesheim (J3344), Cottondorf (J3242) and Grafinau (J3138). Enemy in this area was supported by direct tank and artillery fire.
The 89th Division attacked at 0630 from the vicinity of Arnstadt against moderate to heavy resistance and reached the general line Gutendorf (J4463) - Meckfeld (J4263) - Tonndorf (J4360) - Kranichfeld (J4356) - Wizleben (J3752). The towns of Gorbitzhausen (J3149), Marlishausen (J3152), Alkersleben (J3255), Elxleben (J3357), Reicheim (J3858), and Hohenfelden (J4058) were all cleared. Heavy fire was received by our forces advancing on Wizleben, and between 1800 and 2000 mixed 170mm and 88mm fire fell in all forward areas. At 2100 strong resistance developed in the eastern edge of Wizleben, and the enemy machine guns, 88s, and mortars were active in Kranichfeld. Task Force Crater (composed of 707th Tank Bn less B and C Co); 1st Bn, 353rd Inf (less B Co); A Co, 602nd TD Bn; 89th Recon Troop; 340th FA Bn; 1 platoon, 314th Engr Bn), which had been formed at 1700, began movement to an assembly area in the vicinity of Reicheim.
In the 65th Division an RCT composed of the 259th Infantry and the 867th and 868th FA Battalions, assembled near Friedrichroda (H9955); the 260th Infantry assembled near Catterfeld (J0452); and the 261th assembled near Oberellen. The 6th Calvary Reconnaissance Squadron of the 6th Calvary Group was concentrated near J1550 and the 28th Reconnaissance Squadron (less A and B Troops) was in the vicinity of J2253. The 28th had one reconnaissance platoon with each combat regiment of the 89th Division; one with the 318th Infantry, 80th Division; and one with the 4th Armored Division.
Enemy resistance which built up at the end of the 11th withdrew during the night and on the 12th of April light resistance was encountered as our forces advanced rapidly to the vicinity of Rothenstein (J7257) in the north and Rudolstadt (J5441) in the south. Both towns are on the Saal River. Forces in the rear areas, particularly elements of the 6th Calvary Group, met increaed sniper activity.
The 89th Division continued its attack at 0740 with the 355th Infantry on the left and the 354th on the right. Task Force Crater, spearheading the attack which advanced 20 kilometers, captured a Class 70 bridge intact over the Llm River in Bad Berka (J4961).
The northern column reached the Saal River after taking Saalborn, Grosslohma (J5860), Kleinlohma, Sollnitz, Tromlitz, Milda (J6257), Zimmritz and Schirnwitz. The southern column was to by-pass Blankenhain (J5357), but because of resistance it reduced the town and then attacked southeast. After eliminating resistance from tanks and infantry at Kesslar (J5955), the southern column moved northeast through Grosskleinrobitz (J6456) and elements reached the vicinity of Rothenstein at J71555. The 353rd Infantry moved to the vicinity of Kranichfeld (J4356) prepared to relieve the 354th. The 354th attacked east from high ground at J4454 and advanced four kilometers. Here intense small arms and artillery fire held up the advance until near the end of the period. Other elements of the 354th attacked east through the woods to Ritterdorf (J4652) and J4852 against increased artillery fire. The 355th assisted in the capture of Saalborn, Grosslohn, Blankenheim and captured Tannroda (J4757).
The 87th continued its attack with the 346th and 347th Regiments. Enemy offered moderate resistance to our infantry and armor attack on Stadtilm (J3547) early in the morning and the town was cleared at 0810. Task Force Sundt operated in the center of the division zone and reached Rudol (J5341) on the west bank of the Saale River after advancing 15 kilometers. The 347th Infantry captured Blankenburg (J5037) and elements proceeded northeast to Schwarza (J5338).
The 6th Calvary Group displaced forward to the general area J3558. The 28th Squadron continued to operate on the Corps left flank and maintain contact with leading elements of the VIII and XX Corps. Troop C was assigned the mission of closing the gap between the 87th and 89th Divisions. The 65th Division combed rear areas for stragglers and moved forward to the vicinity of Friedrichroda (H9959). The VIII Corps CP opened at Ohrdruf (J1152) at 1100. At 2400 a new boundary between the 87th and 89th Divisions became effective. It ran from 572330 along the Saale River to 8127 and then to the old boundary at 825275.
On 13 April our forces continued mopping up operations west of the Saale River. Only light small arms and automatic weapons fire was scattered and ineffective. All vehicular bridges over the Saale River were blown but several foot bridges were captured intact. Task Force Crater advance to the river near Altendorf (J7055) and elements reconnoitered north and south for crossing sites. The 353rd Infantry passed through the 354th, which assembled near Blankenheim (J5357) and advanced to Dienstadt (J6550), Robschutz (J6347) and Beutelsdorf (J6547). The 355th pushed elements forward to Gumperda (J6652) and Altenberga (J6754).
In the 87th Division sector the 346th Infantry advanced elements to the river in the vicinity of Kossen (J6344) and put two companies across near Weissen (J6243). Other elements with Task Force Sundt reached the Saale in the vicinity of Rudolstadt (J5442) in the afternoon. At 1730 the town with 185 men and 35 officers was captured. The 347th reached the river near Schwarza (J5338), advanced other elements to Saalfeld (J5634) and J573345, and the 3rd Battalion put two companies across at 545385. All elements across the river received heavy small arms fire and machine gun fire. The 345th Infantry assembled near Nahwinden (J4144).
In the 65th Division the 260th Infantry assembled near Crawinkel (J1547) and the 261st assembled near Elxleben (J3357). The 259th relieved the 260th at 0700, continued mopping up operations in Corps rear areas, and advanced to the line Marhnroda (J2240) -Plaue (J2347). The 6th Calvary Group closed in Kleinlohma (J5859) at 1635.
Operations Memorandum Number 42, issued on the 13th, extended the boundary between the 87th and 89th Divisions and eliminated the zone for the 65th Division. The 65th was given the mission of combing the rear areas in the Corps zone as far east as the Lim River for stragglers and by-passed enemy and, upon completion of its mission, was to assemble in Corps reserve and await orders. The 87th was to continue the attack on the Corps right and maintain contact with the XII Corps on the right; the 89th was to continue the attack on the Corps left and maintain contact with the XX Corps on the left. The 6th Calvary Group was to continue its present mission of mopping up in rear areas east of the Lim River.
On the 14th of April the Saale River was crossed and forces of the VIII Corps advanced against very light resistance. The 89th Division met some sniping and small arms fire but no organized opposition and cleared Grossbockedra (J7556), Geisenhain (J8056), Oberodnitz (J7653), Hummelshain (J7448) and Langendembach (J7445). After occupying Lichtenau (J7947), our forces reported small arms and 88 fire, and at 2400 troops were withdrawn from Neustadt (J8345) so that artillery fire could be placed on the town. Leading elements of the 89th reached J8357, 8249, 8145, and 7448 during the period. Task Force Crater was dissolved.
Crossings of the Saale by the 87th Division continued during the early hours as our troops advanced on the east side of the river. Krossen (J6344) was cleared of enemy after a fire fight at 0010; and by 1100 forces had advanced to J655330. Enemy were also engaged in a fire fight at Schmorada (J7234) before the town was cleared at 1715. Elements of the 345th Infantry moved into Rudolstadt (J5442) and the regiment prepared to displace to Possneck when it was captured. The 346th advancing east was held up by enemy three miles beyond the Saale at 2345. The 347th advanced to Schmorda, Ranis(J7036) and Bucha(J6232). Task Froce Sundt crossed the bridge near Saalfeld at 1415 and advanced to J7536 where Peuschen was captured at 2050.
All units of the 65th Division except guard details closed in assembly in the vicinity of Arnstadt (J2653). The 6th Calvary Group began combing areas east of the Lim River. Elements of the 28th Squadron reached K0258, J9859, J9256, and J9555 and captured a bridge at K059589.
The VIII Corps CP moved to Kranicfeld(J4456) at 1500. Operations Memorandum Number 43, issued on the 14th, set a limiting line on the advance to the east. The line ran from K3654 at the Inter-Corps boundary along the Zwick-Mulde River to Wilkau (K3841) and then along the autobahn to the Inter-Corps boundary at K0913. Upon reaching this line assault divisions were to patrol east aggressively and seize essential terrain features.
On 15 April the 87th and 89th Divisions advanced rapidly east and southeast against only token resistance. A few roadblocks defended by small arms were reported and brief fights occurred in towns and key terrain features. All regiments of the 89th attacked at 0700, and bridges over the Weisse-Elster River at K058589 and over the Weida (K0550) were taken intact. The 354th reached its objectives along the railroad south of Gera (K0561) and at Schomberg (K0248). Elements of the 355th passed through Munchen (J9555) and reached the regimental objective on the railroad. After Neustadt (J8345) was captured, the 353rd assembled there and moved forward to Triptis (J9145). Two battalions reached Staitz (K0044) and Markendorf (J9940), three kilometers short of the regimental objective. Artillery and mortar fire were received in the vicinity of Triebes (K0140).
The 346th Infantry of the 87th Division reached the general line Klein (J9836) - Ditterdorf (J8835), and the 347th reached the vicinity of Schleiz (J8827) - Langenbach (J9523) with the 2nd Battalion at Munchgrun (J8527). The 345th moved forward to the vicinity of Possneck (J7734). Task Force Sundt continued to lead the advance in the division zone and near the end of the period cleared Thiersbach (J9829). At 2030 self-propelled fire fell at Tegau (J9138).
The 6th Calvary Group's mission was to reconnoiter the Weisse-Elster River area and seize all bridges. The 28th Squadron crossed the river near Zeulsdorf (K0458) and moved south to K1247 - 1449 - 1649. Troop A took 709 prisoners in the capture of Weida (K0257). The 6th Squadron advanced to the vicinity of Weissig (K0257), crossed the river near Zeulsdorf, and advanced to K1649 - 1844 - 2150 - 2349. The 65th Division remained in assembly northwest of Arnstadt (J2633). The VIII Corps CP opened at Rudolstadt (J5442) at 1430.
Operations Memorandum Number 44, issued on the 15th, directed that the attack be continued on the 16th to another limiting line which was on the northeast-southwest autobahn from Wilkau to where the autobahn crosses the Weisse-Elster River in the south. Patrols were to operate aggressively to the east thereof and essential terrain features were to be seized. Upon reaching the Corps limiting line, the 89th Division was to secure a bridgehead over the Zwick-Mulde River near Zwickau (K3546) and establish contacts with elements of the XX Corps in the bridgehead area.
On the 16th of April against initial light and scattered resistance the 87th and 89th Divisions continued their advance, crossing the Weisse-Elster River and progressing to the vicinity of the Corps limiting line. Determined resistance developed during the late afternoon, and heavy fighting occurred at Werdau (K2747) and west and southeast of Zwickau (K3546). The 65th Division passed to the control of the XX Corps at 1910. The VIII Corps CP opened at Possneck (J7240) at 1445. The 6th Calvary Group continued operations in the zone of the 89th Division.
The 355th Infantry of the 89th Division advanced to the Leisse River. The 2nd Battalion entered Werdau which had previously entered from the north by the 6th Calvary Group. Increased resistance was encountered at 1500 from dug-in enemy on the east bank of the Pleise River near Werdau, and house-to-house fighting was in progress at the close of the period. Bazooka teams as well as enemy with small arms and automatic weapons were in the town. The 354th advanced to the Waldhaus Forest against increasing resistance. The 1st Battalion reached Waldorf(K1848), the 2nd Battalion Kleinreinsdorf (K1644), and the 3rd Battalion K2252. In the 353rd's advance to the Weisse-Elster, the 3rd Battalion reached the vicinity of K1441, the 1st Battalion approached Greiz (K1537) which was stoutly defended, and the 2nd Battalion reached K1242-1141. Bridges were taken intact at Berga (K1148) and at K1244.
The 346th Infantry of the 87th Division advanced 20 kilometers, crossing the Weisse-Elster River with the 3rd Battalion at Delau (K1434) and the 1st Battalion near K1332. The 1st Battalion captured two bridges intact at this site. The 347th made outstanding advances up to 25 kilometers. The 3rd Battalion captured Plauen (K1220) with a bridge intact and advanced to Freisen (K1719). The 1st Battalion captured a bridge near Weischitz (K0714) and advanced to Oelsnitz (K1511), 3 kilometers east of the limiting line. Task Force Sundt, spearheading the advance, drove to Mechelgrun (K1919), 3 kilometers east of a limiting line. Early in the period, a determined defense was put up by the enemy at Kleinwalschdorf (J9736) and sniper fire in various towns increased noticeably during the day.
Increased resistance reported on the 16th decreased on the 17th of April as our forces advanced to the Corps objective along the entire front. Moderate resistance, however, was maintained in several towns and at favorable terrain features. In a determined fight enemy forces held Langenfeld (K2830) until 1500, and very stiff opposition was met at Greiz (K1537). By the end of the period, and after an ultimatum for surrender of Zwickau (K3546) was rejected, our troops had captured two bridges over the Mulde River and had advanced to the center of the town against small arms, automatic weapons, bazooka and direct fire weapons.
The 89th Division continued to advance at 0700 with three regiments abreast. The 355th Infantry experienced little difficulty in crossing the Zwick-Mulde River, its advance being facilitated by two bridges intact near K346507 and K360407. Elements of the 354th crossed the river while others advanced to Stenn (K3141) four kilometers west of the river. Elements of the 353rd advanced on Reichenbach (K2234) from the northeast and southeast and the city, which had been softened by friendly aircraft, surrendered at 1500. Resistance to the 89th was initially light, but heavy fighting took place at Greiz (K1573) where enemy used 88mm direct fire and strong automatic weapons fire. Most resistance was overcome by noon, but sniper fire continued until 1600. Werdau (K2747), the scene of street fighting since the afternoon of the 16th, was taken at 1800 after enemy were eliminated in continued house-to-house fighting. The rapid advance of the 89th was aided by the capture of five Zwick-Mulde River bridges by the 6th Calvary Group.
During the night of 16-17 April elements of the 87th Division attacked north toward Nosswitz (K1324), capturing 252 enemy and killing 72. At 0700 the division advanced east. The 346th Infantry occupied Treuen (K2325) and captured Legenfeld (K2729) at 1500, after reducing enemy resistance supported by tank fire in a desperate attempt to hold the city. The 347th took Theuma (K1817) and occupied Oelsnitz (K1511) and Plauen (K1120). Task Force Sundt spearheaded the 89th advance to the general line Lauterbach (K2321) - Trieb (K2219) - Bergen (K2217).
In the 6th Calvary Group the 6th Squadron extended patrols from the north to cut the autobahn on a 7 kilometer front in the vicinity of Zschocken (K4742). The 28th Squadron pushed patrols from the north to the general line Ebersbrunn (K3238) - Langenfeld (K2729). The 65th Division which passed to control of XX Corps at 161900, began movement from the VIII Corps zone at 0630.
VIII Corps issued Operation Memorandum Number 45 as a result of scheduled assumption of responsibilities for the XX Corps zone and part of the northern sector of the XII Corps held by elements of the 90th Division. The 4th and 6th Armored Divisions together with the 76th Infantry Division were to come under VIII Corps control upon assumption of responsibility for the new sector. The 6th Armored was to relieve elements of the 76th in the zone, clear enemy to the limiting line, occupy the limiting line lightly with forces disposed in depth, and maintain contact with the V Corps on the north and protect the Corps left flank. The 76th was to relieve the 80th Infantry Division and the 4th Armored elements in the zone, clear enemy to the limiting line lightly with forces disposed in depth. The 87th and 89th were to clear enemy to the limiting line and occupy it lightly with forces disposed in depth. The 4th Armored was to assemble and await orders. The 6th Calvary Group was to relieve elements of the 90th in the zone, clear enemy to the limiting line which was to be held lightly with forces disposed in depth, and maintain contact with the XII Corps on the right flank as well as protect the Corps right flank. A patrol line was established for the divisions and the Calvary Group.
On the 18th of April enemy activity was limited to harassing small arms, automatic weapons, nebelwerfer and artillery fire and patrols which were active in the 6th Armored and 87th Division zones. VIII Corps assumed command of the 4th and 6th Armored and the 76th Infantry Divisions and took over responsibility for the XX Corps sector at 1200. The VIII Corps CP moved from Possneck to Zeulenroda.
The 6th Armored maintained positions along the restraining line on the Corps left flank and completed relief of the 417th Infantry, 76th Infantry Division at 2150. The 4th Armored was relieved in its sector at 1800 by the 385th Infantry, 76th Division and was scheduled to move to an assembly area at 190800. The 76th Division maintained positions along the restraining line with the 304th Infantry on the left and the 417th on the right. In this area the enemy was improving positions in the vicinity of Chemnitz (K6562) and his aircraft bombed and strafed our positions.
The 89th Division advanced with three regiments abreast and late in the afternoon reached the restraining line with the 355th on the left, the 354th in the center, and the 353rd on the right. Zwickau (K3746), which had been the main point of opposition in the division zone, was cleared at 1500.
The 87th Division consolidated its positions along the restraining line with the 346th Infantry on the left, the 347th in the center, and the 345th in reserve. Several towns in the area necessitated further mopping up because of sniper fire. In the 6th Calvary Group, which assumed responsibility for the new zone at 1705, the 28th Squadron passed through elements of the 90th Division at 1620, advanced to the new restraining line, and then extended patrols 3 kilometers to the east. The 6th Squadron closed in an assembly area near K030122.
On 19 April the enemy remained generally nonaggressive while improving his positions and directing automatic weapons, nebelwerfer and artillery fire on our patrols and forward elements. All divisions except the 4th Armored consolidated their positions along the restraining line and patrolled to the east.
In the 6th Armored zone CCR completed relief of CCB at 0700, after which CCB closed near Zeitz(K0881) with the mission of establishing security in the division rear area and protecting the Corps left flank. The 87th and 89th Divsions and the 6th Calvary Group extended patrols 3 kilometers east of the restraining line. In some cases against strong opposition, and the 6th Calvary maintained contact with the XII Corps to the south.
The 76th Division, with elements of three regiments in line, improved defensive positions and patrolled to the east. When the 1st Battalion of the 385th Infantry was uncovered by elements of the 89th Division, the battalion assembled near Hohenstein (K5086). In the 4th Armored CCB closed in assembly near Schmollen (K2465) and 53rd Armored Infantry Battalion closed in assembly 2 kilometers east of Crimmitschau (K2756).
Operations Memorandum Number 46, issued on the 19th, changed boundaries to be effective immediately. The Corps right boundary was to run along the northern boundary of Bavaria to the Czechoslovakian border. The boundary between the 6th Armored and the 76th Division was extended west as follows: old boundary at Polzig (K1370) - Hueckewalde (K1072) - Rosenenthal (J9772) - Gosen (J9074) - Poppendorf (J8575) - Wichmar (J7777), all inclusive to the 76th Division.
On the 20th of April the only enemy activity was light reaction to our harassing artillery fire and opposition to our patrols in certain sectors. The 76th, 87th, 89th Divisions maintained positions along the restraining line and patrolled to the east Task Force Sundt of the 87th withdrew to an assembly area near Friesen (K1719) and elements of the 347th Infantry established positions in the vicinity of Bergen (K2117).
In the area of the 6th Calvary Group the 28th Squadron extended patrols up to 6 kilometers east of the restraining line, clearing Eversbach (K1506), Obr (K1204) and the crossroads at K1201. CCA of the 4th Armored Division closed in and assembly area near K2656 and awaited orders.
The 6th Armored Division consolidated defensive positions and patrolled to the east. CCR established contact on the Corps left with the 2nd Infantry Division in the vicinity of Rux (K5688). CCB disposed troops to provide security in the rear areas and on the Corps left flank.
From the 21st to the 23rd of April all elements of the Corps maintained positions along the restraining line and patrolled to the east. In the 89th Division a task force composed of elements of the 3rd Bn, 354th Infantry with tanks and TDs cleared a road block near K540477 on the 21st and continued to Stollberg (K5546) to clear enemy who were hampering our patrol activity. The 28th Squadron of the 6th Calvary Group cleared Rossbach (P1599) and outposted the town.
On 22 April 1945, the VIII Corps was transferred from Third to First Army control.
On the 22nd the task force cleared Stollberg of an estimated company of the infantry and withdrew to the restraining line. At 1200 VIII Corps passed from control of the Third Army to the First Army. The Third Army was making a drive southeast toward the area between Munich and the Czechoslovakian border. The 76th Division reported flares to the east of its zone at 2200 and 2400, but no contact was established with the Russian forces. On the 23rd flare activity was also noted east of the 6th Armored Division zone.
On the 24th of April the following orders were received from the First Army: "The limiting line for the purpose of preventing a mixing of United States and Soviet forces and beyond which United States forces will make no further advance is the Mulde River. United States troops now east of the Mulde River will conform to instructions listed below. Soviet Air Forces will not bomb or strafe west of the line Mulde River south to Rochlitz, thence the railroad between Roochlitz-Chemnitz (passing through Cassen (K5376) and Burgstadt (K5669), thence to Prague. All United States troops east of the limiting line of Soviet air operations will be withdrawn to the west thereof except for small patrols to protect defensive positions and/or to gain contact with the Russians. Withdrawal to the west of line indicated will be made during darkness 24-25 April. United States artillery will fire only observed fire on definitely identified hostile targets."
In compliance with these orders, the 6th Armored and the 76th Infantry Divisions began withdrawal to the west bank of the Mulde River. The 87th and 89th Divisions and the 6th Calvary Group continued to maintain defensive positions and patrol east in their zones. The 4th Armored Division continued displacement from the VIII Corps zone.
During the period 25-30 April all elements maintained their positions along the Mulde River and awaited contact with the advancing Russian forces. East of the river several towns were cleared of enemy who were interfering with our patrolling. When the 6th Armored and the 76th Infantry Divisions completed withdrawal to the west bank of the river on the 25th, the enemy immediately reoccupied the area vacated. On the 26th the 6th Squadron of the 6th Calvary Group displaced to an assembly area near K075064. An enemy attack by an estimated 100 infantrymen on the 27th in the vicinity of K5350 was repulsed by the 355th Infantry, 89th Division and the situation was restored at 2020.
The 1st Infantry Division was attached to the VIII Corps at 272400 and was to begin relief of elements of the 97th Infantry Division on the Corps right flank. The VIII Corps zone was to be extended accordingly. The 26th Infantry closed in the new area at 2015; the 18th Infantry closed at 2130. On the 28th of the month the 26th Infantry assumed responsibility for its sector at 1200, and the 18th Infantry at 1400. The 9th Armored Division was moving to assembly areas in the vicinity of Weimar(J5272) and SHAEF reserve and was to come under VIII Corps for supply and administration.
The VII Corps on the left of the VIII Corps took over the V Corps sector with the 2nd and 69th Infantry Divisions at 281800. At 1200 on the 29th the 1st Division resumed responsibility for its sector on the right flank of the Corps zone. The 9th Armored in SHAEF reserve passed to Corps control of the 1st Division for supply and administration at 302400. The V Corps assumed control of the 1st Division and responsibility for the new V Corps sector at 1000.
During the last days of April on the Western Front Allied troops were drawing up to the Elbe River from the North Sea to the mouth of the Mulde River and then along the Mulde to the Czechoslovakian border. On the 27th of April the American 69th Division of the V Corps and the Russian 58th Guard Division effected a junction in the vicinity of Torgau (E6442), and on the 28th the VII Corps reported a meeting between the Division Commander of the American 104th Infantry Division and the Russian 118th Infantry Division at Delitzsch (E1935).
During April it was impossible to keep more than a general account of enemy units on the Corps front. At various times different units were identified through prisoners, but most of these prisoners no longer had any knowledge of the larger units to which they belonged. The many identifications culled from the conglomeration of prisoners included Infantry, Panzer, VG, Volksturm, Mobilazation, SS Mtn, Administrative, and Fyhrer Escort Divisions with the ever present miscellaneous GHQ, AA, Engineer and Replacement units. Identification of the 356th Infantry Division was made on 4 April. Two days later elements of the 6th SS Mtn and the 2nd and 11th Panzer Divisions were identified. From the 8th to the 11th of the month the chief identifications were either elements of the 347th Infantry and the 11th Panzer Divisions or miscellaneous units claiming attachment to these divisions. On the 14th only elements of the 11th Panzer and GHQ and Volksturm units were identified, but on the 15th elements of the 9th VG and the 9th Panzer Divisions were added. Beginning on the 17th, elements of administrative divisions appeared, first with the 404th Mobilization Division. Prisoners then began coming from work groups, the first one being Work IV units.
On the 26th of April a new and final identification was made when prisoners were taken from the Fuhrer Escort Panzer Division. After 20 days of contact with elements of the 11th Panzer Division, it disappeared on the 26th to be identified on the front of the XII Corps. By the 28th, elements of three administrative divisions the 469th, the 404th and the 413th ZBV and Work Groups IV and XIII were in contact with our troops. Altogether the enemy on the Corps front were incapable of presenting more than a delaying threat.
April for the VIII Corps was a month of rapid advance, delayed more by limiting lines than by enemy resistance. Although ambush activity and determined enemy groups caused deployment of troops in rear areas, this type of resistance was less than expected and amounted to little more than nuisance activity. Our movement was fast on the excellent German autobahn and here again, in spite of some demolition of bridges and some enemy air activity, the overpowered German was unable to execute mass demolition which would have caused time-consuming delays or to muster more than harassing air attacks where large convoys presented perfect aerial targets.
The greatest factor of delay was a planned strategy to move the entire western front forward at approximately the same time. Daily increasing supply lines presented their problem also, but at no time were our supply lines over-extended. At the head of the attacking columns occasional enemy groups were capable of mounting sufficient strength to cause actual delay, and some enemy forces by-passed by armor put up stubborn fights before surrender to our infantry groups, but the Corps, after crossing the Rhine on the 25th and 26th of March drove so fast during the first twenty days of April that it was stopped on the Czechoslovakian border to await the advancing Russians. From the 25th of March to the end of April 7, 1952 prisoners were captured by the Corps, and thousands of Allied prisoners of war were liberated.
On the first of May Corps units continued to maintain positions along a line from K5287 to the northwest vicinity of Chemnitz(K6561) and then southwest generally along the Chemnitz - Plauen (K1220) autobahn to K1601. Units were disposed from right to left with the 6th Calvary Group on the right flank, then the 87th, the 89th and the 76th Infantry Divisions with the 6th Armored Division on the left flank. The 9th Armored Division, which was in SHAEF reserve in the Weimar - Jena area and had passed to VIII Corps control for supply and administration on 30 April at 2400, was alerted for movement to the V Corps on 3 May. On the fourth of May the 9th Armored completed its move begun on the 3rd and passed to control of V Corps at 2400. The 87th Infantry Division was in radio contact with Russian forces on its front.
On the 5th of May, as the result of an attack to be launched by the V Corps of the Third Army to capture Karlsbad (P6593) and Pilsen (L0642), VIII Corps was given the mission of protecting the left flank of the V Corps. To accomplish this mission, VIII Corps issued Operations Memorandum No. 48 which stipulated that the Corps would advance its right flank to the general line Stollberg (K5546) - Schwarzenberg (K5727) and protect the left flank of V Corps. The 6th Calvary Group was to attack early 6 May, clear all enemy in its zone, and maintain contact between the 87th Division on the left and the V Corps on the right. The 87th was to attack progressively from right to left in conjunction with the 6th Calvary Group. The 89th Division was to attack from right to left progressively in conjunction with the 87th. The 76th Division was to continue its present mission of maintaining positions along the restraining line and patrolling east. The boundary between the First and Third Armies was changed on the 5th so that it ran from M9738 east and north along the northern boundary of Bavaria to the Czechoslovakian border and then northeast along that border.
On 6 May 1945, control of VIII Corps was transferred from First to the Ninth Army.
At 0700 on 6 May the 6th Calvary Group and the 87th Division attacked. Both the 6th and 28th Squardons encountered numerous roadblocks, but most of them were not defended. After capturing Adorf (K2201), where small arms fire and two bazooka teams were met at 1400, the 6th Squadron advanced to capture Marienny (K2207) and Markneukirchen (K2600) and pushed on to the limit of its zone south of Zwota (K3305). The 28th Squadron advanced to Oberzwota (K3005), and captured high ground two kilometers east of that town, and cleared its zone of enemy on reaching Klingenthal (K3506).
The 87th Division attacked with the 346th and 347th Regiments abreast and took all its objectives during the day. The 346th captured Rodewisch (K3125), Falkenstein, Hauptbrunn (K3219), Auerbach (K3022) and Rutzengrun (K3223) and advanced to Schnarrtanne (K3422). The 347th Infantry captured Tannenbergthal(K3514) and reached Sachsenberg(K3708).
In the 6th Armored Division zone patrols of the 50th Armored Infantry Battalion made initial contact in the VIII Corps with an eight-man patrol from the 147th Russian Guard Division at Waldheim(K7088) at 2200. The VIII Corps passed to operational control of the Ninth Army at 1800.
VIII Corps issued Operations Memorandum No. 49 which involved mainly a change in boundary. Effective at 062400 the boundary between the Ninth and Third Armies (VIII and V Corps) was to be the old boundary along the northern edge of Bavaria to the Czechoslovakian border at K105005 and then generally east along the northern border of Czechoslovakia. The First Army was withdrawn and began displacment west. A temporary boundary between the 6th Calvary Group and the 1st Infantry Division of the V Corps was to remain in effect until the 1st Division cleared the area. At this time, the 6th Calvary Group was to relieve 1st Division elements. Other elements of the 6th Calvary Group, after completing their mission, were to assemble near Adorf(K2100) as Corps reserve. There was no changes for other units in the Corps.
On the 7th of May, VIII Corps troops were ordered to discontinue the advance at 070515 because of the following SHAEF message which was received from the Ninth Army Headquarters. "Representatives of the German High Command signed the unconditional surrender of all German land, sea, and air forces in Europe to the Allied Expeditionary Forces and simultaneously to the Soviet High Command at 070141B May 1945, under which all forces will cease active operations at 090001B May 1945. Effective immediately all offensive operations will cease. Troops will remain in present positions. Moves involved in occupational duty will continue. Due to the difficulty in communications, there may be some delay in similar orders reaching enemy troops, so full defensive precautions will be taken. No release to the press pending announcements by the head of the three governments."
On Wednesday 9 May 1945 at 0001, the War in Europe ended. The VIII Corps issued Operational Memorandum Number 50 in preparation for the organization, occupation, and government of its newly assigned sector. On the 10th of May, units began closing in their new areas. The 6th Calvary Group closed at 121500, Corps Artillery 121800, 76th Division 122230, 87th Division 130200, 89th Division 140001, and the 6th Armored Division 150930.
Committed to action for the first time in Normandy on 15 June 1944, the VIII Corps has engaged in eleven months of action, which has involved the defeat of elements of the German Army in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany; the withdrawal or capture of German commands from the English Channel to the Elbe-Mulde Rivers in the very heart of Germany. During this time, fighting of all varieties and under nearly all conditions has occurred. Slow, costly storming of fixed defenses under heat and bitter cold; fast, follow-up movement after break-throughs or establishment of bridgeheads on numerous streams; offensive action of speed and skill; defensive action against numerical superiority in mud and snow; these types of warfare and more were experienced by VIII Corps troops.
Through it all, the Corps has stood the test of battle, and though much of its hardest fighting and greatest sacrifice has been at forgotten or unknown hedgerows, crossroads, villages, river crossings or on mountain heights, there are certain operations which highlight the entire commitment to battle. Among these are the breakthrough at Avranches, the capture of the Fortress Brest, the breaching of the Siegfried Line, and the crossing of the Rhine River. But by far the most spectacular action of the VIII Corps was its magnificent action at Bastogne and in the Ardennes region. Here VIII Corps made an historic and heroic stand which will be remembered as one of the outstanding battles of World War II.
In material accomplishment, the Corps, in eleven months, captured 204,616 prisoners, excluding an additional 43,721 who surrendered between the 9th and 18th of May; and, though no accurate estimate can be made of enemy losses in material and equipment in VIII Corps sectors, that loss was very considerably more than Corps losses. All effort, however, demanded a fixed price, and in paying this price in loyalty to their country, 11,074 men who were killed, 46,339 were wounded, 11,408 who are missing, and 2,335 who were captured, have engraved their memory in the successful operation of the VIII Corps.
25 March In U.S. Third Army area, VIII Corps begins attack across the Rhine.
26 March In U.S. Third Army area, VIII Corps expands and strengthens Rhine bridgehead. At 0200, 89th Div starts across the Rhine in Wellmich-Oberwesel region under intense fire; on left 354th Inf (-) secures Weyer, Nockern, Lierscheid, Patersberg , and St Goorshausen; 353rd, reinf by bn of 355th, captures Dorscheid, Kaub, Bornich, and Weisel; TF Johnson (motorized bn of 355th Inf plus supporting weapons and engineers) crosses at Boppard and moves along east bank, capturing Kestert; TF Engel (89th Rcn Tr and TD Co) follows TF Johnson, mopping up.
27 March In U.S. Third Army area, VIII Corps continues to enlarge and strengthen Rhine bridgehead. 89th Div crosses the last of its combat elements over the Rhine and expands bridgehead toward Wiesbaden; forward units take Bogel on north, Streuth in center, and reach Lorch on south.
28 March In U.S. Army's VIII Corps area, 89th Div moves southeast against spotty resistance: TF Johnson reaches Bad Schwalbach and halts; 354th Inf moves forward behind TF Johnson; 353rd, clearing Hinter Wald, is strongly opposed in vicinty of Nieder and Ober Gladbach; 355th, reinf by components of TF Engel as that TF is dissolved, overcomes severe resistance at Lorch.
29 March In U.S. Army's VIII area, 354th Inf, 89th Div, reaches Bad Schwalbach and relieves TF Johnson, which is dissolved, then continues toward corps boundary; 353rd clears resistance in vicinity of Ober and Nieder Gladbach and takes Hausen; 355th and Rcn Tr clear Rhine bend W of Wiesbaden.
30 March In U.S. Third Army area, 89th Div reaches corps boundary from Neuhof to Eltville and begins mopping up bypassed pockets.
3 April In U.S. Third Army area, VIII Corps continues concentration in new zone for attack to limiting line Mulhausen-Langensalza- Gotha. 89th Div, concentrating in Hersfield area, releases RCT355 to 4th Armd Div. In U.S. Third Army's XX area, in center of corps, 89th Div, less RCT355, shuttles E to forward assembly area; 353rd Inf moves to Berka-Lauchroeden region and relieves elements of 90th Div (XII Corps).
5 April In U.S. Third Army's XX Corps area, CCA and CCB of 6th Armd Div clear Mulhausen by 0905. CCB then moves to Schlotheim area. CCA drives southest and advance elements begin assault on Langensalza from the northwest as elements of 65th Div (VIII Corps) push to same objective from the southwest. 80th Div begins attack east from Kassel but is halted by change of orders and relieved by 69th Div (V Corps). 76th Div continues eastward toward Werra and Wehre Rivers: RCT 385th begins attack on Grosselmerode;RCT 304, to right, reaches the Wehre at Niederhone, west of Eschwege, and takes bridge, VIII boundaries are altered to give Corps former XII Corps zone, 65th Div continues toward line Muhlhausen-Langensalza by nightfall. Elements of 353rd Inf, 89 Div, move into Eisenach after enemy agrees to surrender it, but pulls back upon learning that Germans are returning, Against light resistance, 354th Inf advances east on div left to line Henningsleben-Warza, south of Langensalza, and halts to await relief by XX Corps.
6 April In U.S. Third Army's area XX Corps area, 6th Armd Div's mission is concluded as Langemensalza, under assault by elements of CGA and VIII Coprs' 65th Div, capitulates. 80th Div begins move from Kassel area to Gotha. RCT 385, 76th Div, reaches the Werra, capturing Grossalmerode, Trubenhausen, and Bad Sooden; crosses the Wehre at Niederhone to reach Eschwege area. RCT 304 speeds east from the Wehre by motor to vicinity of Schonstedt. 3rd Cav Gp assembles S of Kassel when boundary change places it within IV Corps zone. In VIII Corps area, 65th Div completes capture of Langensalza by 0745 and is disposed along restraining line Muhlhausen-Langensalza before noon. 353rd Inf, 89th Div, overcomes strong opposition at Eisenach; 354th moves around 353rd to vicinity of Waltershausen; RCT 355 reverts to div and moves to Ohrdruf area to screen right flank of div.
7 April In VIII Corps area, enemy counterattack overruns 3rd Bn of 261st Inf, 65th Div, in Struth, but situation is restored with assistance of elements of XX Corps and aircraft. Elements of 65th Div relieve 87th Div forces at Gerstungen. 353rd Inf, 89th Div, clears region southeast of Eisenach to line Wutha-Ruhla; 354th drives south across right front of div, entering Friedrichoroda; 355th screens div right from Seebergen to Wollfis.
8 April In VIII Corps area, 65th Div, whose zone on left flank of corps is being uncovered by XX Corps, passes into reserve. 89th and 87th Divs continue clearing Thuringer Wald against scattered but determined opposition.
9 April In VIII Corps area, 89th and 87th Divs continue attack abreast, reaching positions generally along corps remaining line; are ordered to make limited attacks eastward from there on the 10th. 353rd Inf finishes clearing 89th Div left flank; 354th, reinf by bn of 355th continues to protect right flank of div and overruns Grafenhain.
10 April In VIII Corps area, 89th and 87th Divs continue east abreast. 89th Div, with 355th Inf on left and 354th on right, drive to Gera R at Rudisleben, Arnstadt, and east of Espenfeld. 87th Div's 345th Inf takes Stuzhaus and continues vicinity of Crawinkel; 347th, to right, reaches edge of Geraberg. Div forms TF Sundt (Div Rcn Tr, Co k of 346th Inf, and supporting units) to spearhead drive to Saale on 11th, followed by 3d Bn of 346th Inf, motorized; rest of 346th Inf prepares to attack through 345th. 65th Div closes in assembly area in vicinity of Berka.
11 April In VIII Corps area, 89th Div reaches line Gutendorf-Tonndorf-kranichfeld-Wizleben; forms TF Crater (motorized elements of 1st Bn of 353 Inf, 89th Rcn Tr, and supporting units) for dash to the Saaleon 12th. 87th Div proceeds quickly toward Stadtilm on left and Bad Blankenburg on right. 65th Div starts to new assembly area at Waltershausen.
12 April In U.S. Third Army's area, VIII Corps drive east to the Saale against decreasing resistance. On left, TF Crater spearheads attack of 89th Div, moving through Bad Berka to the Saale in Rothenstein area; 355th Inf mops up resistance bypassed by TF Crater and seizes Tannroda; 354th progresses slowly south of Kranichfeld. TF Sundt of 87th Div reaches the Saale near Rudolstadt. 346th Inf assists TF Sundt and takes Ehrenstein and Altremda. 347th overruns Bad Blankenburg.
13 April In U. S. Third Army's area, VIII Corps mops up west of the Saale, over which all vehicular bridges are destroyed and establishes bridgehead on right. 89th Div, with 355th and 353rd Regts abreast, clears Rothenstein-Beutelsdorf sector west of the Saale and dissolves TF Crater. 87th Div, with 346th and 347th Regts abreast, clears its sector to the Saale; crosses elements at Etzelbach, Schwarza, and Saalfeld by ford and foot bridges and establishes firm bridgehead. 65th Div starts toward Arnstadt to mop up stragglers.
14 April In U.S. Third Army's XX Corps area, VIII Corps sets restraining line extending north from boundary south along Zwick Mulde R to Wilkau, thence southwest along autobahn to south boundary. 355th and 353rd Regts, 89 Div, speed east from the Saale to the general line Moeckern-Zwaukau-Arnshagen. Upon completion of bridge near Saalfeld, TF Sundt heads 87th Div advance, reaching Peuschen: 346th Inf drives about 3 miles east from Ettelbach crossing site, and 347th gets elements to Schmorda.
15 April In U.S. Third Army's area, VIII Corps directs 89th Div to establish bridgehead over Zwick Mulde R in vicinity of Wickau and to make contact with XX Corps. Committing 354th Inf between 355th and 353rd, 89th Div drives to line of Weisse-Elster and Weida Rivers between Gera and Zeulenroda and begins crossing after nightfall. 6th Cav Gp crosses Weisse-Elster R on left flank of corps and moves east and southeast in zone of 89th Div. Thrusting southeast toward Weisse-Elster R, 87th Div's 346th Inf reaches Kleinwelschendorf, just west of Zeulenroda; TF Sundt drives to Pausa area; 347th Inf reaches Langebach. 65th Div is notified that it will be returned to XX Corps.
16 April In U.S. Third Army's area, VIII Corps pushes east and southeast against scattered resistance. 6th Cav Gp, developing enemy positions ahead of 89th Div, takes Weisse-Elster bridges at Berga and Knottengrund and turns them over to 89th Div; pushes east to north-south rail line running through Werdau. 89th Div reaches Pleese R and begins assault on Werdau on left, in center drives into Werdauer Wald, and on right reaches Weisse-Elster R in vicinity of Greiz. Assault forces of 87th Div cross Weisse-Elster R on right flank of corps and forward elements reach positions beyond corps restraining line, the autobahn. On left, 346th Inf captures Zeulenroda, crosses the Weisse-Elster, and drives to vicinity of Brockau. TF Sundt drives southeast across Weisse-Elster R to Mechelgruen, east of limiting line. 347 Inf overruns Plauen and reaches autobahn to east on left and drives to Oelsnitz, beyond restraining line on right.
17 April In U. S. Third Army's area, in VIII Corps area, 89th Div completes capture of Werdau and establishes bridgehead across Zwick Mulde R in vicinity of Zwickau; on right clears Greiz and takes Reichenbach after aerial softening of city. 87th Div closes along limiting line on corps right flank and gains additional ground beyond it. 346th Inf pushes beyond the autobahn to Bergen area. Elements of 347th Inf occupy Theuma.
18 April U.S. Third Army regroups extensively and starts side slipping southward for final drive southeast to Austria and Czechoslovakia. VIII Corps clears to corps restraining line and takes control of XX Corps 4th and 6th Armd and 76th Inf Divs in place. 6th Armd and 76th Inf Divs maintain current positions along restraining line and patrol; 76th Div begins relief of 4th Armd Div. 89th Div attains all its objectives: 355th and 354th Regts expand Zwick Mulde bridgehead toward Oelsnitz, overrunning Zwickau, Wilkau, and many other towns; makes contact with 76th Div on left; 353d Inf takes a number of towns east of the autobahn on right flank of div. XX Corps turn over its sector and 3 divs to VIII Corps and starts to Bamberg area. 80th Div releases positions overlooking Chemnitz to 76th Inf and 4th Armd Divs.76th Div relieves 4th Armd Div in line.
19 April In U.S. Third Army area, VIII Corps consolidates along restraining line and patrols eastward.
20 April In U.S. Third Army area, VIII maintains current position and patrols actively.
22 April In U.S. First Army's XVIII Corps (A/B) area, VIII Corps is transferred from Third to First Army control as Third Army attack veers from east to south. Its mission is to defend current front, protect south flank of First Army, and maintain contact with Third Army. 4th Armd Div passes to direct control of First Army.
6 May Western Europe, 12th Army Group: U.S. Ninth Army takes control of VII and VIII Corps from First Army at 1800.
This Army was established on October 1, 1943, with its command post initially at Bristol, England. Its headquarters directed the training of United States forces committed for the initial assault upon the continent, under the general supervision of the First United States Army Group, to which it was assigned for administrative purposes; prepared studies on supply and equipment requirements for Headquarters European Theater of Operations, United States Army; and directed the United States Army's share in an orientation program to promote understanding between United States and British troops. Under the Twenty-First Army Group commander, it prepared the United States portion of the initial joint plan for the invasion of Europe and, during the initial assault, it participated in the Build-Up Control Organization, which consisted of British and American military and naval representatives at Portsmouth who supervised the flow of troop units across the Channel.
The First Army's forces participated in the initial assaults on the Normandy coast on June 6, 1944, the capture of Cherbourg, the Battle of Northern France, the Battle of the Rhineland, and the crossing of the Rhine; and they finally advanced to Grimma on the Mulde. Besides combat operations, Headquarters directed civil-affairs and military-government activities successfully from beachhead operations in France, through Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Germany, and finally in Czechoslovakia.
Late in May 1945 the First Army was transferred to the United States, where its headquarters was relocated at Governors Island, N.Y.
On September 5, 1944, this Army, under the command of Lt. Gen. William H. Simpson, entered combat during the siege of Brest and other French ports that the Germans had heavily garrisoned before retreating from Normandy. In October the Ninth Army fought near the First Army around Aachen and by December it reached the Roer River. After the Germans counterattack of that month, the Ninth Army resumed the offensive in February 1945 and reached the Rhine at Dusseldorf. On March 23 it crossed the Rhine, and by the end of April it had closed the line of the Elbe-Munde, the forward limit that had been agreed upon with the Soviet Union.
Commanding officers in important engagements
Battle of Hill 581, Capt John L. Whelan Jr.
Battle of Wullersleben, Capt John L. Whelan Jr.
Battle of Langenselza, 1st Lt Raymond L. Stull.
Battle of Dieforf, 1st Lt Robert G. Woods.
Battle of Chemnitz, Capt William S. Wiley Jr
Crossing Saal River, 1st Lt Winnick K. Richardson.
Battle of Schleiz, 1st Lt George I. Poos.
Autobahn East of Plauen, 1st Lt George I. Poos.
Raid of Papen Grun, 1st Lt George I. Poos.
Chapter 19Bronze Star
Awards to members who distinguished themselves in action
PFC Louis R Gardner
PFC John Bitto Jr
PFC Howard D Hall
Capt George C Young
1st Lt Robert R Wood
1st Lt Thomas F Graham
1st Sgt John J Hogan Jr
S/Sgt William Bender
Sgt Alan Brylawski
T/Sgt William H D Wheat
Tec 5 William R Osborne
PFC William T Brown
PFC Robert L MacKinnon
Tec 5 Adam A Czuprenski
S/Sgt Donald Woodside
PFC Roderick E Allen
PFC Ray E Glass
PFC Lee E Seymour
Cpl Benjamin T Cockrill
Pvt William E Feirerday
PFC Ihadeus J Sarek
PFC Donald F. Watkins
Certificate of Merit
Tec 5 Gerald McCubbins
Pvt Francis Winston
Award Of Bronze Star Metal
Technician Fifth Grade Adam A. Czuprenski, 36898705, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for meritorious achievement in connection with military operations against the enemy from 7 April to 20 April 1945 in Germany. Entered military service from Michigan.
First Lieutenant Robert R. Wood, 01037786, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for heroic achievement in connection with military operations against the, enemy on 12 April 1945 in Germany. Lieutenant Wood was in charge of the Observation Post detail directing fire of a platoon of 4.2" Chemical Mortars, when the Observation Post came under direct enemy artillery fire. With utter disregard for his personal safety, Lieutenant Wood stayed at his post in the Observation Post, directing the mortar fire until his assigned mission had been accomplished. Lieutenant's Wood's indomitable spirit and unremitting devotion to duty reflect upon himself and the Armed Forces. Entered military service from New York.
First Lieutenant Thomas F.Graham, 01535587, (then Second Lieutenant), Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for meritorious achievement in connection with military operations against the enemy from 13 April to 8 May 1945 in Germany. Entered military service from Illinois.
Technical Sergeant John J. Hogan, Jr., 32251983, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for meritorious achievement in connection with military operations against the enemy from 27 March to 20 April in Germany. Entered military service from New York.
Staff Sergeant William Bender, 37408700, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for meritorious achievement in connection with military operations against the enemy from 8 April to May 8, 1945 in Germany. Entered military service from Missouri.
Sergeant Alan W. Brylawski, 13122018, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for meritorious achievement in connection with military operations against the enemy from 4 April to May 8, 1945 in Germany. Entered military service from Maryland.
Technical Sergeant William H D Wheat, 35704871, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for heroic achievement in connection with military operations against the, enemy on 12 April 1945 in Germany. Sergeant Wheat was communications Non Commisioned Officer and radio operator with an Observation Post detail directing fire of a 4.2" Chemical Mortar Platoon, when the Observation Post came under direct enemy artillery fire. With utter disregard for his personal safety, Sergeant Wheat stayed at his post, operating the radio to transmit fire commands to the mortars. The dauntless courage and loyal devotion to duty displayed by Sergeant Wheat are in keeping with the highest traditions of the Armed Forces. Entered military service from Kentucky.
Technican William R.Osborn, 38235926, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for heroic achievement in connection with military operations against the, enemy on 12 April 1945 in Germany. Technician Osborn was a radio operator for an Observation Post detail directing fire of a 4.2" Chemical Mortar Platoon, when the Observation Post came under direct enemy artillery fire. With unswerving devotion to duty he stayed at his radio transmitting fire commands to the mortars until the assigned mission had been accomplished. The tenacity of purpose and loyalaty to duty displayed by Technician Osborn are in keeping with the highest traditions of the Armed Forces. Entered military service from Arkansas.
Private First-class William T. Brown, 35732261, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for meritorious achievement in connection with military operations against the enemy 12 April, 1945 in Germany. Entered military service from Indiana.
Private First-class Robert L. MacKinnon, 31383932, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for heroic achievement in connection with military operations against the, enemy on 12 April 1945 in Germany. Private Mackinnon was serving as messenger with an Observation Post detail directing fire of a 4.2" Chemical Mortar Platoon when the Observation Post came under direct enemy artillery fire. With utter disregard for his personal safety he remained on duty and accomplished all missions assigned him despite the constant perils to which he was exposed. His courage and devotion to duty reflect great credit on himself and the military service. Entered military service from Rhode Island.
Sergeant Donald L. Woodside, 39035173, Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for meritorious achievement in connection with military operations against the enemy from 7 April to May 8, 1945 in Germany. Entered military service from California.
Captain George C. Young, 01039989, (then First Lieutenant), Chemical Warfare Service, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, United States Army, for meritorious achievement in connection with military operations against the enemy from 27 March to May 8, 1945 in Germany. Entered military service from Massachusetts.
Original cadre of 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion
Battalion CO, Major Justin D. Paddleford, 0351118, CWS
Battalion S-3, Captain William H. Crockford, 0301425, CWS
Battalion ExO, Captain John L. Whelan Jr, 0446626, CWS
Battalion S-2, 1st Lt Robert I. Bloom, 0446610, CWS
Battalion S-4, 1st Lt William C. Goins, 0465479, CWS
Battalion S-1, 1st Lt William H. Squires, 0442623, CWS
1st Lt Mervin E Keiser, 01035297
1st Lt Robert G Woods, 01036437
2nd Lt Theodore T Swensen, 01037928
2nd Lt Kenneth L Smith, 01039570
2nd Lt Charles M Ham, 0538923
2nd Lt Raymond L Stull, 01039938
1st Lt Donald a High, 046982
1st Lt Samuel B Cox, 01035442
2nd Lt William Bever, 0519921
2nd Lt Jack J Aleshnick, 01038359
2nd Lt Charles F Bien, 0524634
2nd Lt Thomas F Graham, 01535587
2nd Lt William H Glass, 01039646
2nd Lt Harry J Staib, 01039574
1st Lt Winnick K Richardson, 01036353
2nd Lt Louis Flax, 0514649
2nd Paul Fribush, 01039351
2nd Lt Gerald Brown, 01039209
2nd Lt Walter R Pankey, 0519939
2nd Thomas T Hamilton, 01038662
2nd Lt Walter M Spaulding, 01038855
1st Lt Robert G Wright, Jr, 0395182
2nd Lt Frank C Wolcott, 01037784
2nd Lt Vincent Gambone, 01039281
2nd Lt George C Young, 01039989
2nd Lt Robert L Mitchell Jr, 0514292
2nd Lt Russell W Larsen, 01038725
2nd Lt James G Beers, 01038641
S Sgt Paul E. Andrew, 35328541
S Sgt Norbert C. Guy, 35618683
S Sgt John Moskos, 32044037
S Sgt William Librera, 12108170
M Sgt John M. Cortigiano, 31190624
M Sgt Virgil S. Fisher, 34194116
1Sgt Louie R. Flanagan, 15116196
1Sgt George F. Hall, 33168035
1Sgt Benjamin W. Miazga, 33322130
1Sgt Robert B. Vincelette, 32279308
T Sgt Walter M. Beard, 37091894
T Sgt Pernell J. Canton, 37092001
T Sgt Dominick J. Caputo, 32198276
T Sgt John J. Hogan, 32251983
S Sgt Robert L. Allen, 35055257
S Sgt Ernest C. Barth, 33201318
S Sgt Robert K. Bartram, 35767134
S Sgt Glenn A. Brunner, 39847004
S Sgt Ormond W. Chandos, 35573153
S Sgt John N. Gilbride, 35111837
S Sgt Garth E. Groves, 37251041
S Sgt Anthony Kampanis, 2507285
S Sgt Harry M. Karski, 33271188
S Sgt William H. Mayer Jr, 3379404
S Sgt Robert D. Mcfadden, 36825326
S Sgt Frank Oprandy, 32763426
S Sgt Herbert R. Shine, 35041952
S Sgt Bennie F. Smith, 34444955
S Sgt Henry L. Steuben, 3346051
S Sgt Alfred D. Vogt, 36507620
Sgt Lawrence W. Barrett Jr, 14128385
Sgt Ross P. Blodgett Jr, 17085764
Sgt Harold G. Bourgoyne, 38376639
Sgt Robert O. Charette, 31323397
Sgt Ralph Coscarelli, 33690058
Sgt Manuel A. Ellison, 33681179
Sgt Clinton T. Furrer Jr, 19118766
Sgt Warren F. Hooper, 31238032
Sgt Harold R. Illinger, 37617020
Sgt Mark R. Jackson Jr, 35768822
Sgt Bernard L. Kain, 35375260
Sgt Lawrence J. Klosterman, 13146019
Sgt Frank I. Koninski, 33458357
Sgt James O. Moore Jr, 18165790
Sgt Edward Mullins, 35655260
Sgt Levi W. Perdue, 38332351
Sgt Otto C. Pyle, 38509261
Sgt Raymond E. Roth Jr, 35068824
Sgt Robert J. Schlembach, 35868249
Sgt William O. Spradling, 38431491
Sgt William H. Thompson, 3667329
Sgt William D. Whatley, 34807779
Sgt Thomas R. Wiggins, 37504588
Tec 4 Stephen R. Augustine, 36764168
Tec 4 Adalbert P. Baran, 33371149
Tec 4 Arthur Bevenue, 39129332
Tec 4 Arlo Brownlie, 37441725
Tec 4 James R. Burdette, 37622889
Tec 4 Frederick W. Gartner Jr, 15360007
Tec 4 Joseph P. Karpicz, 31204564
Tec 4 David Lamont, 32996665
Tec 4 Travis Latham, 34801276
Tec 4 Noon F. Leong, 39905800
Tec 4 Frank A. Miller, 37527192
Tec 4 Cletus E. Motzko, 3756863
Tec 4 August J. Peter Jr, 35682801
Tec 4 William Hd Wheat Jr, 35704871
Tec 4 Norman D. Whipple, 39699988
Tec 4 Leroy M. Yeager, 33511617
Cpl Walter Amann, 13186516
Cpl Leslie C. Liabo, 37670115
Cpl John A. Mcafee Jr, 17168273
Cpl Joseph E. Schelling, 35701065
Cpl Robert W. Waaso, 36424441
Tec 5 Charles E. Boyd, 35049633
Tec 5 George B. Gillis, 33555464
Tec 5 Walter S. Gladys, 33356289
Tec 5 Josef P. Keesler, 17168305
Tec 5 Stephen J. Molner, 33691090
Tec 5 Arthur A. Schulz Jr, 37614536
Members of 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion
Lt Col Jacquard H. Rothschild, 0018077, Bn CO
Maj Justin D. Paddleford, 0351118, CWS, Bn Ex O
Maj Marshall S. Marshall, 0436613
Capt John L. Whelan, Jr, 0446626, CWS.
2nd Lt James G. Beers 01038641, Adjutant
1st Lt George 1. Poos 0552425, Adjutant
1st Lt William H. Squires, 0442623, CWS, Bn S-1
Ist Lt Robert I. Bloom, 0546610, CWS, Bn S-2
Capt Robert J. Lobach, 0426032, Bn S-2
Capt William Crockford, 0301425, CWS, Bn S-3
Capt William C. Goins, 0465479, CWS, Bn S-4
WOJG Owen Rush
Capt George C. Young 01039989.
1st Lt S L V. Cox 01035442.
1st Lt James J. Work 01037373.
Ist Lt Kenneth L. Smith 01039576.
1st Lt Winnick K. Richardson 01036353.
WOJG Frederick J. Olson
PFC John L. Framgen 36649002.
Tec5 Robert L. Beechler 35986284.
Tec5 John E. Bennett 32048051.
PFC Santino Bonacucrso 39597880.
Tec5 Wade Browning 33322401.
Msgt John M. Cortigiano 31190624.
SSgt John W. Gilbride 35111837.
Tec4 George B. Gillis 33555464.
PFC Sylverius H. Greuel 36829994.
SSgt Robert L. Allen 35055257.
Sgt Arthur Bevenue 39129332.
Sgt George F. Reynolds
PFC James L. Boarman.
PFC Hollis C. Kelley 17096827.
Tec5 Edward J. Lager 37549087.
Pvt Joseph D. Bagwell 7061171.
SSgt Robert K. Bartram 35767134.
PFC Lehman Dowdy 37408564.
PFC Elmer G. Ballard 34446263.
Tec5 Lester S. Copeland 36658809.
Tec5 Wallace R. Diehl 16095560.
Pvt Harold B. Dressler 35065333.
Tec5 Edward S. Hastey 34881960.
Pvt George P. Marks 36683259.
PFC James J. Matthews 32960224.
Cpl Guy E. Maxson 36870030.
Cpl Alexander F. Morrison 33687669.
Pvt Lupe M. Nino 38157599.
Tec5 William G. Quigley 37656905.
Tec4 Vernon L. Ragan 38288913.
PFC James W. Rhodes 36778949.
PFC Lee E. Seymour 38691683.
Tec5 Paul J. Shuluga 33685487.
1stSgt Ormond W. Chandos 35573153.
PFC Jacob H. Kobes Jr 37655101.
Cpl Robert L. Williams 37470055.
PFC Edward H. Cronin 15319439.
MSgt Pernell J. Canton 37092001.
PFC Carson M. Labar 42122657.
PFC Blaine A. Devlin 39462762.
Tec5 Josef P. Kessler 17168305.
PFC Leonard L. Pflug 36762309.
Tec4 John A. McAfee 17168273.
Pvt Elwood T. Bowling 33552788.
Cpl Saul T. Jacobowitz32175841.
Tec4 Edwin T. Anderson.
Tec5 Walter Amatruda 31055357
TSgt Carl R. Anderson 12003769.
PFC Jacob Bagby 69100404.
PFC James L. Barnett 34946607.
Pvt Howard C. Barr 33839580.
PFC Francis E. Barrett
PFC James W. Barton 34946074.
PFC Raymond W. Beall 13050885.
TSgt Walter M. Beard 37091894.
SSgt William Bender 37408700.
PFC Francis E. Berrill 3593928.
PFC Norman W. Boyer 3 3 515 1 00.
PFC Walter C. Brown 3648063 1.
Pvt Simon Brown 06980799.
PFC James L. Buchanan 34947243.
Pvt Billy G. Byoudson
PFC Earl C. Cannon 34706621.
TSgt Dominick J. Caputo 32198276.
Tec5 Harley C. Carlson 17143483.
Tec4 William P. Chalfant 33668771.
Pvt Charles Cohen 33795542.
PFC Howard E. Croteau 31373846.
TSgt Arthur Devanne
PFC Murratt E. Dockey, Jr 313 3 923 6.
PFC Santino Donnaccorso 39597880.
PFC James Doorman 36953748.
PFC Elwood T. Dowling 33552788.
Pvt Henry A. Dush 12056313.
Pvt Harry Ellis, Jr. 32754079.
Pvt Robert L. Ensley 44021364.
PFC Howard L. Feazell.
Pvt Raymond Fiala, Jr
Pvt James V. Flaherty 42160244.
PFC Patrick F. Forte 32774447.
Tec5 Wallace L. Freeman 38430663.
PFC James T. Gaines 34946260.
Tec5 Lewis N. Garner 36650900.
PFC Elwyn W. Gilmore 44050989.
PFC Marvin Gilpin 34946560.
PFC Ray E. Glass 33906203.
Pvt Charles C. Glover 14016423
PFC William M. Gober Sr. 34945805.
PFC Jasper C. Golden, Jr. 34947098.
PFC Thomas H. Grace 34948119.
Pvt Earl W. Grant 33917312.
Pvt Pat W. Grant
Pvt George C. Hancock 44006782.
PFC Harvey L. Hardy 34947174.
PFC Oce L. Hargett Jr. 34946603.
PFC Albert R. Hartman 33878770.
PFC Douglas Hedden 34947293.
Pvt Max Bermah 34946069.
Cpl Memory R. Herring 34465884.
Sgt Earl E. Hoard 37400606.
1stSgt John J. Hogan Jr. 32251983.
Pvt William Hudson 34864614.
Tec5 Edward J. Iager37549087.
Pvt Lawrence H. Jacobson 12194064.
Pvt Jack F. Jones 36448846.
SSgt Harry M. Karaki 33271188.
Tec4 Gerhand Klein 39117735.
Pvt Ralph Lambert 44040251.
Tec4 Noon F. Leong 39905800.
PFC Oscar L. Lloyd Jr. 34946267.
Sgt John Lorwill 17127521.
PFC Edward W. Lucas
SSgt Edward S. Mack 37412847.
PFC Jewell W. Brady, Sr. 34978022.
Tec5 Clifton E. Main.
PFC James A. Manioni 34947674.
PFC Gade Marcum 35429997.
PFC Leonard H. Martin 3494625 1.
Tec5 John S. Mayer 33422832.
Tec4 John R. Mayes 37408556.
Tec5 Gerald McCubbins
Pvt Gerald V. McGillivray 32990326.
PFC Beryl F. Miller 37705200.
Pvt John A. Milner Sr 6390259.
Tec5 Bronell C. Moore 35642841.
PFC Leo N. Norman 34435663.
PFC Kendrick Paine 31431858.
Pvt James A. Paisley
Tec4 Lester 1. Paulson 37285189.
Sgt William A. Peck
SSgt August J. Peter 35682801.
PFC James Peterson 37746303,
PFC Walter C. Petty 34946645.
1stSgt Norman Piocliani
PFC Paul M. Pittinger
PFC James A. Potter 31386184.
Pvt Charles K. Robertson 44043157.
PFC Theodore W. Roeder 36819716.
Tec3 Louis Romer 36509882.
Pvt Willie B. Salon 35537053.
PFC Joseph F. Santora 33695127.
PFC Frank S. Santoro 32774285.
Ihadeus J. Sarek 36954780.
Sgt Arthur A. Shultz, Jr. 37614536.
PFC Lloyd P. Sharp 38107539.
PFC Robert K. Shepherd 36473371.
PFC Robert R. Shively Jr. 33710216.
PFC Aaron Simon 36319407.
Tec5 Jack J. Sinclair 33570298.
Pvt Jack Slavitt 33839578.
PFC Stanley F. Sonich 32754632.
PFC Norman N. Spain 15125944.
PFC Mitchell Stead Jr. 1391647.
PFC Robert M. Stewart 33773261.
TSgt Arthur C. Swanson 20120498.
PFC Joseph Tangredi 42078298.
Pvt John E. Taucfun
Pvt Ernest J. Thelan 36114574.
SSgt William H. Thonwson 36673298.
PFC Jack L. Trask 36891524.
Tec5 Leonard N. Tucker 39160166.
PFC Joseph Tucker 33060956.
PFC Anthony Vella
Cpl Robert W. Waaso 36424441.
SSgt Sherrell T. Walden
Tec5 Clifford J. Walz 37412133.
PFC John Wheeler 36651120.
Tec4 Norman D. Whipple 39699988.
Pvt Edward R. Whitehouse 31419683.
PFC Vincent E. Wickman 39931774.
Cpl Donald M. Wieland 39316002.
PFC Willie D. Wiggins Jr. 34998881.
Sgt Albert H. Wiley 35170727.
Tec4 Arthur C. Wilkinson Jr. 37412940.
Pvt Francis Winston 35273034.
PFC Odell D. Witt 33530403.
TSgt James F. Woodmancey 32571208.
Tec4 Leroy M. Yeager 33511617.
PFC Edward L. Yoder 36114128.
Pvt Charles W. Zulker Jr. 32754342
Pvt Paul J. Stedry 3 7491198.
1st Lt Charles M. Ham 05 3 8923.
1st Lt Bernard Rabinowitz 0553174.
Ist Lt Mervin E. Keiser 01035297.
1st Lt Kenneth R. Larson 0543057.
1st Lt Walter R. Pankey Jr. 0519939.
2nd Lt Raymond L. Stull 01039938.
2nd Lt Theodore T. Swenson 01037928.
Capt William S. Wiley Jr
1st Lt Robert G. Woods 01036437.
Cpl Edward F. Gem[boyle.
PFC Robert J. Armentrout 35553682.
PFC John L. Falkenthal 16175559.
Harry E. Razor
PFC James V. Gallen 17134212.
PFC Clyde J. Walker 34312020.
PFC Cletus R. Ness 33498923.
PFC William A. Bates 35422859.
Tec4 Jam[es R. Burdette 37622889.
PFC John Zupko 36748874.
Tec4 Edward V. Bessling.
PFC Levi D. Wray 33330172.
PFC Charles P. Edwards 33330624.
Tec5 Jack W. Wilson 33530419.
PFC George Knotoff 42126626.
PFC John F. Bates 11092328.
Cpl Joseph Hollick 33488179.
Sgt Donald R. Gent 36571310.
SSgt Glenn A. Bruner 39847004.
Tec5 James L. Cagle 37105391.
PFC David L McDanrf-l 32817978.
PFC Robert E. Moore 37655130.
Tec 5 Mack A. Christian Jr 38392635.
Tec4 Gifford E. Alloway 33498880.
Pvt William D. Anderson 33409568.
PFC George J. Asztalos 36805719.
Pvt Charles H. Bell 33008448.
PFC Elmer D. Bennington 33069250.
Sgt Harold G. Bourgoyne 38376639.
PFC Clifford H. Bowen 33408591.
Tec5 Robert K. Berger.
PFC William J. Connally 31428813.
PFC William E. Cox 14071705.
PFC Harold S. Brickey 33732112.
Cpl Raymond W. Cudak.
Tec5 Stanley C. Culbreth 34213038.
Tec4 Asa at Eisenhart 35487629.
Pvt Berman Eisman 32086789.
Tec4 Walter S. Gladys 33356289.
PFC Lester Hainley 33497463.
Tec5 Henry T. Hall 33530335.
Pvt Whiteford Hatcher 34213187.
PFC Brian H. Hatten 38518571.
PFC David A. Hicks 34449164.
PFC George E. Hunter 38329090.
Pvt Chester W. James 19059751.
Pvt John Q. Long 35663655.
Pvt John H. Ludwig 31045206.
Sgt Charles N. McCormick 35170707.
SSgt John Moskos 32044037.
1stSgt Wyley M. Pas Smore 6363819.
SSgt Levi W. Perdue 38332351.
Cpl Frank P. Pertuzzi 32868984.
Cpl James P. Shutt 36151780.
PFC Herman Vick 33522894.
Cpl Paul J. Woith 36477869.
Cpl Calvin K. Fercho 17140659.
PFC Leonard H. Beckmann 37228246.
Tec5 Philip Kreisler 32145568.
Sgt Stephen J. Witkowski 33409490.
Tec5 Pearl H. Jipson 31037957.
PFC Leonard J. Peetras 36955179.
Sgt Robert 0. Charette 31323397.
Tec5 John D. Davis 35297965.
Sgt Robert J. Schlembach 35868249,
Sgt Lawrence J. Klosterman 13146019.
Pvt Bernard A. Beecher 33553030.
PFC Jordan Birger 31457379.
PFC Charles Calton 37403552.
Cpl Ralph D. Dunlevy 15359832.
Cpl Charles D. Eidson 39286705.
Sgt William E. Lile 36551642.
Cpl Alvin C. Carroll 35046032.
Tec5 William C. Spencer 33551219.
PFC Alan D. Chaplin 39723576.
PFC William G. Edmiston 32948530.
Pvt Walter Bechik 37280359.
SSgt Clinton T. Furrer, Jr 19118766.
Cpl Angelo P. Cordi 35077032.
Sgt Robert A. Nye 35548192.
Tec5 Vern S. Wood 37498486.
Pvt Ted E. Mann 37450408.
Tec4 Joe J. McCafferty 36053102.
Pvt John B. Aaron 32757404.
PFC Ray Adams 39187725.
PFC Milford L. Adams 38429468.
PFC Charles T. Adkins 34864747.
PFC Roderick E. Allen 33522065.
Sgt Walter Amann 13186516.
Pvt Clyde B. Anderson 38745958.
PFC William L. Anderson 33773095.
TSgt Paul F. Andrew 35328541.
PFC William G. Baeley 34394549.
Pvt Robert A. Bamdow 38323121.
Tec 5 Roy F. Barker 37657018.
PFC Arthur A. Barrette 37460374.
Tec5 Edward Bayles 361222307.
Pvt Albert R. Benner 33878317.
PFC Harold Bentley 42087800.
Pvt Earl E. Bishop 33153304.
Pvt Mark J. Bivens 3 6900901.
PFC William H. Bivens, Jr. 34947848.
Pvt Edward R. Blklon 35764352.
Tec5 William H. Bowser 33422799.
Tec5 Robert K. Berger 36129774.
PFC Gerald C. Burket 33570265.
PFC Jeremiah K. Burns 36804564.
Sgt James M. Cadden 32045556.
Cpl William J. Carey 35045858.
PFC William E. Casper 34947799.
Pvt Felton A. Childres 44075993.
Cpl Joseph J. Chmielewqwski 33576683.
Pvt Oscar L. Conley 38575019.
Pvt Charles F. Connally Jr. 34737101.
PFC Clyde W. Copeland 17091571.
PFC Thomas P. Cosgrove 36776465.
PFC Emmett H. Creel 34947037.
Pvt Jimmie L. Curlee 37691335.
Pvt Sidney P. Diamond 12229318.
Pvt Frank Diaz 39145924.
Tec4 Willis H. Edwell 35212082.
Pvt Randolph H. Erhart 17170606.
Tec5 Richard R. Erikson 32065458.
Cpl Forrest R. Estes 37500138.
Pvt Robert J. Faltus 31436393.
Tec5 William Fish 36780412.
Pvt Virgil S. Fisher 34194116
Sgt Andrew T. Fleming 33522169.
PFC Addles J. Foret 34271708.
Pvt Henry W. Foulds Jr. 42089924.
Pvt Harold J. Garstenmier 42185822.
Sgt Joseph Geike Jr. 36571310.
PFC Edward A. Gochenaur 33497344.
Cpl Edward F. Gombolys 36374440.
Pvt Carlon A. Grozi 44055356.
PFC Frank J. Gruber 34946018.
PFC Fred Z. Hadaway 44050867.
Pvt Joseph J. Haszonics 32768482.
Sgt John H. Hodges Jr 33530563.
Sgt Ernest M. Hoover 33569827.
PFC Casper H. House 33040913.
Cpl Blaine F. Hurley 32235160.
Tec4 Samuel Iacone 33005948.
PFC Mike Jarincik 35323383.
PFC David S,. Johnson 34946224.
PFC Stanley B. Kaiser 31454250.
Tec4 Joseph P. Karpicz 31204564.
PFC Alonza C. Kennett 33045608.
Sgt Lawrence J. Klosterman 13146019.
J. W. Lee 16175122.
SSgt William Librera 12108170.
SSgt Billy D. Macormic 37408567.
Sgt Silvis D. Masessa 202263684.
Tec4 Joe J. McCafferty 36053102.
Sgt Lee J. McManus 16175122.
PFC Willard R. McMullen 38518396.
PFC Robert H. Moore 33957677.
Sgt James 0. Moore Jr 18165790.
PFC Perry E. 37674622.
Pvt Leo Nashadka 33917305.
Pvt Maynard E. Nelson 33553218.
Cpl David P. Newman 33005959.
Tec5 Richard W. Nunnally 33553043.
PFC Herbert E. Onstot 37680133.
PFC Louis Pazzi Jr. 37655244.
PFC Matthew A. P. 36384648.
Pvt John P. Pribicin 33895156.
PFC Edward Rasheed 34645839.
Pvt James J. Raszonecs 32760482.
PFC William Z. Read 33711315.
PFC Robert S. Riley 37459099.
Cpl Harold V. Robertson 39171570.
PFC Norman L. Rogers 19013034.
PFC Rudolph K. Sbearin 33859547.
Sgt William 0. Spradling 3 8431491.
PFC Carlos E. Stroup 34446447.
Pvt Benjamin Stubinger 7028684.
Tec5 Maurice E. Taylor 36151723.
PFC David Thompson 38599231.
Tec4 Frank Totoro
Pvt Albert R. Trotsky 31499070.
Pvt Joseph Ventezigiglia
1stSgt Robert E. Vincelette 32279308.
PFC Andrew Vuyosevich 35614864.
PFC Claude J. Wallace 34881752.
Pvt Clyde P. Walton 34312020.
PFC Barney E. Warren 3 562195 1.
PFC Barry E. Warren 35421330.
PFC William G. Weaver Jr. 33943635.
Pvt Randall S. Webb 39727696.
Sgt Dale A. Widick 37434995.
Pvt Robert B. Williams 12082074.
PFC Ben F. Wisnowski 36219392.
Pvt Alden E. Woodruff 31453598.
Pvt Stephen Yastisedck
1st Lt William H. Glass 01039646.
2nd Lt Jack J. Alesbnick 01038359.
1st Lt Thomas F. Graham 01535587.
1st Lt Rubin Rabinowitz 01535682.
1st Lt William Bever 0519921.
1st Lt Donald A. High 046982.
1st Lt Charles F. Bien 0524634.
1st Lt Allen R. Blackmar 0468427.
1st Lt Robert F. Brockschmidt 0365209.
1st Lt John T. Elliott 026896.
1st Lt Harry J. Staeb Jr. 01039574.
1st Lt Robert R. Wood 01037786.
PFC John V. McClain 39182850.
PFC Russel W. Wester 32571896.
PFC Frank Pecoraro 42130333.
Cpl James R. Coleman 34931159.
PFC Joseph E. Znamenak 35247062.
Tec5 John Bertucci 33318362.
TSgt William Hd Wheat 35704871.
PFC Julius 1. Eigenberger 37428885.
Cpl Joseph E. Schelling 35701065.
Pvt William C. Lindeman 33577813.
PFC Milton S. Fitz 37631677.
PFC Willie B. Satterwhite 38682345.
Sgt Leroy Hopkins 33522142.
Pvt Willie E. Coleman 33523052.
Tec5 Willmar C. Anderson 36209738.
Cpl Leonard C. Jackson, Jr 37498424.
PFC James W. Knight 37655291.
Tec5 Kenneth E. Barto 37471224.
Pvt Carl E. Brown 33006470.
PFC George L. Butcher 39841741.
Pvt Robert D. Callahan 37583003.
Sgt William H. Callaway 14201022.
Tec4 Andrew J. Carter 34677810.
Cpl Hinton N. Cook 6996738.
PFC Gabriel B. Davis 35607162.
Pvt Fario De Finis 12100587.
Tec4 August E. Dever 37212373,
Pvt Clifford E. DuBord 31409708.
PFC Samuel R. Duer 33040523.
Tec5 James M. Gardner 39192485.
Cpl Joseph F. Gilles 33409523.
Garth E. Groves 37251041.
PFC Howard D. Hall 34529929.
Pvt James E. Hall 34587863.
Pvt Robert P. Hansel 33005455.
PFC Jerry Hasek 37655374.
PFC Paul Hicks 34282417.
PFC Walter J. Hordynec 35066941.
Sgt George W. Johnson 35594960.
PFC Lawrence Kemkes 36274665.
PFC Lawrence Lambert 3 2143 701
PFC James E. Long 33931001.
Pvt Robert Lowell 36210388.
PFC Francis R. Marsh 31013365.
Sgt Patrick J. Miller 39230007.
Sgt Edward Mullins 35655260.
PFC Edwin J. Musial 36350129.
Pvt Robert L. Nichols 33553200.
Tec5 Dean K. Olsen 37012843.
Cpl John H. Penn 13143355.
Pvt Vernon C. Peterson.
August Petert 35794001,
Pvt Jack M. Petty 44043086.
Pvt Woodrow W. Pickeral 33530351.
PFC Emerson Pine 35604899.
Pvt Paul W. Potorff 33498927.
PFC Arthur J. Quick 34966292.
Pvt William J. Saluta 33022050.
Pvt John C. Sauer.
SSgt Herbert R. Shine 35041952.
Cpl Tony J. Miceli 35037013.
PFC Ray A. Bowyer 33846333.
PFC Arthur J. Fesemyer 13189073.
PFC Joseph P. Towell 33882057.
PFC W. R. McCannon 36947097.
PFC Clarence T. Poe 33498961.
Tec5william H. Gobal 36431161.
Cpl Joe Ynostroza 38554733.
Cpl William A. Fallon 31448004.
PFC Frank A. Mikolich 35917661.
Sgt William McCulken Jr. 33577388.
PFC John Bitto Jr 35930924.
Tec3 William a Hagen 3 592803 8.
PFC Philip Eads 34946308.
PFC William T. Brown 35732261.
Sgt Gerald L. Hertel 06991124.
Sgt Alan W. Brylawski 13122018.
SSgt Bennie F. Smith 34444955.
SSgt Glenn R. Flemmg 34211975.
TSgt Charles H. Roberts
Cpl Mark J. Ervin 36500901.
PFC Charles T. Padgett
PFC Louis A. Formica 31410008.
Cpl Frank Grmlli 16191394.
Sgt Harold R. Ellinger 37617020.
Cpl Joel A. Witberington 34588468.
Tec5 Paul J. Edmunds 42120029.
Pvt Robert A. Hallet 31459074.
Tec5 Samuel J. Krevonick 33040807.
PFC Oscar C, Grlliland 38548924.
Cpl William F, Gerhardt 13141961.
1stSgt Benj W. Miazga 33322130.
SSgt Anthony A. Porzi 13030630
Tec4 Cletus E. Motzko 37568633.
Pvt Aubrey A. Gentry, Jr 34947020
Tec4 Berman R. Anderson 19187464.
Tec5 Herbert E. Anderson 1718488.
Pvt Harry H. Anderson 37266467.
PFC Kenneth J. Baldwin 37470086
Cpl Joseph M. Bennett 33006249.
Pvt Lucious Berry 34683337.
Pvt Earl Bolden 33531175.
PFC Gordon L. Boughton 31315446.
Pvt Roy S. Brandt 33497206.
Pvt James A. Bratten 34947674.
Pvt Clement E. Breckenrode
PFC James H. Brennan
PFC Edward D. Brown 35748875.
PFC Ray Campbell 33570250.
PFC George C. Casey 39178337.
Pvt Johnnie Cataa Jr 38340200.
Tec5 Albert Chaney 33006517.
Tec4 Albert R. Cinque 32110725.
Pvt Arthur J. Cleveland 33422560.
PFC Paul H. Cockley 35497457.
Cpl Benjamin T. Cockrill 34922749.
Cpl Robert B. Collings 36893732.
Robert Collins 35828338.
PFC Aldrich Cook 31429171.
Pvt James L. Cox 1708455.
Pvt Albert Cox Jr. 33422564.
Sgt Paul V. Cramer 12227788.
Tec5 Thomas J. Crozier 33407572.
Pvt Carl Derosa 35747116.
Pvt Clement Eckenrode 33691963.
Pvt Cloyd H. Eichelberger 7026828.
Pvt Wallace R, Eiler 35422625.
PFC David H. Either 33422864.
PFC Steven L. Ench 33497473.
PFC John C. Epps 33522133.
PFC Francis T. Fahey 36616707.
PFC Milton S. Falz
Pvt William E. Feirerday 36219881.
1stSgt Louie R. Flanngan 15116196.
Tec5 Elmer C. Flock 39315977.
PFC Joseph L. Flow 32835507.
Pvt Ancel C. Fowler 38084306.
Sgt Henry A. Francolim 31052985.
PFC Robert M. Freenm 16157662.
Cpl John J. Fricovsky Jr 32307085.
PFC Arthur P. Gamache 31078773.
PFC Wybert Garnett 0705036.
PFC Arthur G. George 33409532.
Tec5 Wade H. Gilbanes 37532755.
PFC Oscar C. Gilliland 38548924.
PFC Curtis Goad 34193400.
PFC Raymond Goble 34261983.
Pvt James H. Goode 34945828.
PFC James S. Gregory 34611349.
PFC William D. Haley 35530356.
Tec5 Lawrence R. Hawks 33045624.
PFC William D. Hendricks 37454945.
PFC Shelby Fuggins 34036114.
Tec5 Bernard C. Hudgins 07023850.
PFC Charles K. Hurley 35851542.
Cpl Perry J. Hyatt 33322147.
Sgt Harold R. Illinger 37617020.
Sgt William R. Jenkins 33535032.
PFC Gary D. Joiner 34945676.
SSgt Anthony Kawanis 32507285.
Pvt Abraham B. Kaplan 32498597.
PFC Gregory Katris 42073937.
SSgt Charles Keating 20624245.
PFC Wayne Kile Jr. 35876542.
Cpl Grainville J. Knowles 34056018.
Tec5 Sam Krevonick 33040807.
Pvt Carl W. Lawter 35092783.
Pvt John Eh Lee 33553205.
PFC Joseph C. Lewis 37189355.
Sgt Leslie C. Liabo 37670115.
Tec4 Albert R. Lincus 32110725.
PFC Raymond B. Lottman 37408522.
Tec5 Coy Lucas 16015731.
Pvt Robert M. MacKennon 31383932.
PFC Robert L. MacKinnon
Pvt William A. Magee 35928033.
Pvt Marlin 36883259.
Pvt George Martinez 38012999.
PFC Henry F. McCullough 37749903.
PFC Frederick A. Mercer 32699218.
Pvt Benjamin W. Miazga 33322130.
Pvt Murray B. Millar 39253626.
PFC Henry Mott 34972173.
PFC Henry Nichols
PFC William H. Nicbel 33487630.
Tec5 William R. Osborn 38235926.
Tec4 Charles L. Osborne Jr. 34172521.
Cpl James C. Oswald 34442283.
Cpl Gerald B. Otto 33569787.
Tec5 Clilus Peterson 37655115.
PFC Marion 0. Phillips 35241442.
SSgt Otto G. Pyle 38509261.
Tec4 William F. Quinlan 36355188.
PFC Holly L. Rauiett 34946217.
Pvt Richard S. Redcay 33497464.
PFC Alfonso Sanchez 39253985.
Tec5 Harold W. Sandler 31387082.
PFC Patrick A. Sauro 41208948.
Tec5 Harold W. Sawllen
PFC Charles M. Schwartzbach 33842523.
Tec5 James W. Slaw 33316304.
PFC James 0. Soyars 33521835.
PFC Harold D. Stewart 15302073.
SSgt Frank A. Stray 36160271.
Harold Swallen 31367082.
Tec5 Conrad W. Thornton 19113032.
Sgt Robert J. Turner 12108313.
PFC Harvey L. Utes 37082548.
Tec5 Harley L. Utz 37082548.
PFC Joseph S. Vansickle 33206188.
PFC Loriston G. Voigts 20954999.
PFC John D. Ward 34599181.
PFC Donald E. Watkins 12073278.
Pvt Guy B. Wayman
PFC Frank J. Wicker 36894003.
Tec5 Wade H. Wilbanks 37332755.
PFC Frederick A. Wing 31212981.
PFC Phillip Wittmer Jr. 35217114.
Sgt Edward J. Woelfel 36274668.
Pvt Fred Wolf 35828631.
Cpl John Cf Wood 35636900.
Pvt Paul H. Woodling 13096756.
Sgt Roger D. Wright 33553093.
PFC Gerald F. Young 37655363.
Pvt William P. Young Jr. 34490099.
Tec5 Richard F. Zimmer 12098292.
1st Lt Louis Flax 0514649.
1st Lt Robert J. Lembach 0426012.
1st Lt Walter M. Spaulding 0 1 03 8855.
2nd Lt Gerald Brown 01039209.
2nd Lt Thomas T. Hamilton 01038662.
2nd Lt Paul Fribush 01039351.
1st Lt Vincent M. Gambond 01039281.
2nd Lt Robert L. Mitchell Jr. 0514292.
1st Lt George 1. Poos 0552425.
2nd Lt Frank G. Wolcott 01037784.
Sgt John E. Cairns 33564134.
Tec5 Marion T. Donikowski
PFC John C. Moore 33521990.
Cpl Harry C. Gude 33522197.
Tec4 Arlo Brownlie 37441725.
PFC Louis R. Gardner 36881129.
Pvt William P. Fitzgibbon 42102223.
Pvt Clarence H. Burdette 34946590.
Tec4 Frank A. Miller 37527192.
PFC Russell A. Miller 37655146.
PFC Daniel S. Barash 39202570.
PFC Rubin Abney 35487040.
Pvt Fred Andres 32809183.
Tec4 Stephen R. Augustfne 36764168.
Pvt Charles R. Ayres 38270913.
Pvt Ivan 0. Baldwin 37267202.
Pvt Elbert Bolton 35686104.
PFC Lyle L. Cottral 36692459.
PFC Jamies N. Crawford, Jr 34833270.
Tec5 Louis D. Ambrozich 37303068.
Pvt Virgil C. Cumberledge 33553107.
Pvt John P. Descarage 31419497.
PFC Eugene W. Dewitte 33570335.
Pvt Lester L. Dickey 34500532.
Pvt Joseph H. Dougherty 33902528.
Pvt William A. Gavinsky 39601946.
Sgt Joseph E. Goda 35045921.
Pvt Curtis A. Guthrie 37233922.
PFC Pink V. Hammonds 34978248.
Tec3 Felton F. Hammons 34014545.
PFC John P. Harris 33045668.
Tec4 Robert E. Belsley 35163184.
PFC Alton P. Hood 33879335.
PFC Edwin J. Hough.
PFC Franklin Hundley 32809838.
Tec5 Henry A. Jakush 36107334.
PFC Charles E. Johnson 34945807,
Tec5 Louis Karkosh
Pvt Ralph S. Kintsele 35575809.
Sgt Frank I. Koninski 33453357.
Tec5 Clinton E. Lain
Tec4 David Lamont.
PFC Herman Lastik 33577711.
SSgt Charles J. C. 32084938.
Pvt John S. Lind 39397405.
Pvt Frank C. Martinez 39080174.
Pvt Louis J. Miklosovic 33032125.
Tec5 Murray Mitchell 12058573.
Tec5 Stephen J. Molnar 33691090,
Tec5 Donald M. Nieland
Sgt Len Nowak 32164414.
Pvt Kirby C. O'Banion 38261073.
Pvt Mike E. Parrish.
PFC Charles J. Pierce 31140826.
PFC Harvey J. Poulin 19096522.
Pvt Edward A. Robinson 39306707.
PFC Thomas J. Rorick 39616755.
PFC Donovan L. Ryan 37653591.
PFC Oscar L. Sfhuver 33710185.
Tec5 Frank F. Sicolla 33576680.
Cpl Everett R. Hendrixson 34394377.
Cpl Francis A. Flaa 17140709.
Tec 5 Stanley A. Bobrowski Jr 36757845.
Tec 5 Harley C. Carlson 17143483.
PFC James P. O'Connor 33553092.
PFC Edward D. Curlock 36908028.
Tec 4 Bill K. Beinbaugh 17006214.
Pvt Robert B. Cirasson 16175539.
Pvt Melvin R. Grolla 36922540.
Cpl Arthur C. Deichmiller 36904203.
Tec5 Anthony D. Doyle 16175134.
PFC Stanley Booher 16167466.
PFC Robert F. Sasser 14116953.
Sgt Werner E. Frickman 32769520.
Sgt Loyal Whiteside 33422435.
Pvt Charles K. Robertson 44043157.
Cpl Edward W Wiederhold 35473187.
Tec 5 Lavern J. Power 37654071.
Tec5 Louis D. Ambrozich 37303068.
PFC John S. Jaresh 38280376.
Pvt William C. Kortvely 33488127.
PFC Leonard W. Halverson 36843614.
PFC Ralph Coscarelli 36690058.
Cpl James C. Finsterle 12228860.
PFC Alfred P. Cando 42101565.
Cpl Sidney J. Frigand 12227828.
Pvt David M. Friedland 42057403.
Cpl Robert Franks 32891805.
Sgt Stanley H. Leja 31050263.
Sgt William D. Whatley 34807779.
Pvt Royal D. Sr"ons 35071418.
PFC Eugene M. Deller 37470908.
PFC Lu Vern A. Adkisson 37654068.
PFC Robert J. Colgan, Jr
Cpl Guy W. Nace 33498887.
PFC Charles E. Sharp 35407454.
PFC James F. Ahern 32587993.
Sgt Herman E. Nall 06965443.
Pvt Wilbur F. Foster 42051486.
Pvt Albert B. Edwards 33846400.
Pvt Frederick G. Rosen 19063681.
PFC William C. Mitsis.31034146
Cpl Everett L. Ballou 36681823.
Tec5 Richard L. Couchman 37393097.
PFC George A. Flud 37500194.
Cpl William R. Fronabarger 37627935.
PFC Don Inglet 39828546.
PFC Chester L. Baeley 35379910.
PFC James J. Davino 32065721.
PFC John J. Hendrix 34966878,
Cpl Joseph Masino 32531659.
PFC Edgren D. Morris 33553009.
Tec5 Merle W. Morrison 33497365.
PFC David W. Moyer 33488206.
PFC Edward H. Myers 33498860.
PFC Garnet W. Reilly 33732789.
Pvt Frank J. Selak, Jr 39143481.
Cpl James Derosa 32188007.
PFC Norvel W. Anderson 37736468.
Pvt George A. Arnold 35215149.
PFC Robert A. Bainter 37361502.
Tec5 Marion Baker 39202570.
Tec4 Adalbert P. Baran 33371149.
Sgt Lawrence W. Barrett Jr. 14128385.
Tec4 Charles P .Bellina 32453918.
Pvt Furian 1. Berry 34946946.
SSgt Ross P. Blodgett Jr. 17085764.
Pvt James L. Boarman 36953748.
PFC David D. Boies 36546824.
Cpl Oden B. Brewster 35396575.
Tec4 Richard D. Brown 35746875.
Tec5 Cletus B. Bunkers 37428994.
PFC Vernon R. Burns 37265553.
Pvt Alfred Cagle 37412607.
PFC Robert W. Campbell 35097045.
Cpl William J. Charvat 35324434.
PFC Sheldon Chazin 42061938.
PFC Tyrus H. Cobb 34946776.
Tec5 Robert E. Colby 42103382.
Cpl Curtis Cole 42030387.
PFC Alfred P. Compo 42101565.
PFC John A. Condie 16122872.
PFC Paul J. Copp 35492239.
Pvt Loy P. Croker 34947043.
PFC Glenn L. De Beer 37655452.
PFC Leon S. Dochinger 32776898.
Tec5 Marion F. Donikowski 33409524.
PFC Douglad M. Doty 31368474.
Tec4 Donald G. Dreblow 37567536.
PFC Albert J. Dupont 42166678.
PFC Charles H. Edwards Jr. 31279340.
PFC Manuel A. Ellison 33681179.
Pvt Albert R. Esche 36776835,
Tec5 Robert J. Eshleman 33614616.
PFC William 0. Everett 32037829.
Tec4 Floyd E. Fallis
PFC Burton Fielder 34946164.
Pvt Kenneth M. Fields 17166981.
PFC James B. Finley 15304473.
Cpl Robert J. Frahm 39187754.
Tec5 Sol Frerdler 31065757.
PFC John L. Fryberger
Tec4 Alfred Fusco 11043251.
PFC Samuel R. Gannett 12227742.
PFC Paul H. Gockely 33497467.
PFC Owen R. Griffith 32489761.
Cpl T Z Hamm 11 38433114.
Tec3 Pink V. Hammons 34014545.
Pvt Alvin F. Harrman 37228153.
Pvt Andrew A. Hodas 39843799.
Pvt Carrol Holcombe 34947845.
SSgt Warren F. Hooper 31238032.
PFC Edwin E. Hough 34554738.
PFC David S. Hovis Jr. 33683339.
PFC Leroy Hunt 37102446.
PFC Harold L. Hunter 38083879.
Tec5 Louis H. Jacobson 31188931.
Sgt Bernard L. Kain 35375260.
Cpl Lawrence J. Korbett 37498517.
Pvt Homer L. Krager 3 7102817.
Cpl Krajewski 32729789.
Pvt Edward W. Krasznai 33487638.
Tec5 James P. Le Lacbeur 36131860.
Tec5 Arnold Levy 32960641.
PFC Myron J. Lover 42126165.
Tec5 Russell Lucy 32170131.
PFC Maynard F. Mades 36275450.
Pvt Nathan 32609655.
PFC Hugh R. Maupin 34363317.
SSgt William H. Mayer Jr. 33379404.
PFC Patrick McCaffrey 32681079.
Pvt Louis McCurry 69681079.
Tec4 Glenn W. McKnight 37109500.
Cpl Anthony J. Migliore 31105884.
PFC Lloyd F. Mooney 37413012.
Pvt Arthur L. Munoz 38080076.
Tec5 Merle D. Myers 33483580.
PFC Edward H. Myers 33498860.
Pvt Mark Nathan 32609655.
Tec5 Donald M. Nieland 39316002.
Pvt Tyrus E. Oceb 34946596.
PFC Jarrell Ormand 36982125.
Pvt Mack E. Parrish 34465450.
Pvt Bernard E. Pennig 37303348.
PFC Clarence E. Poole 34151143.
Tec5 Anthony L. Promutico 33549068.
Cpl Devere E. Ranville 36416422.
Sgt William A. Reck 33495913.
Cpl John H. Rosenfelder 37109500.
Sgt Raymond E. Roth Jr. 35068824.
Cpl William J. Ryan 32216567.
Sgt Ralph E. Scott 19139568,
PFC Edward J. Scrivani 33553248.
Cpl Daniel H. Sebastian 18135433.
Pvt Gaylord M. Smith 33570354
Tec5 Robert L. Smith 33488220.
PFC Robert D. Smith
PFC Edward E. Soper 36431097.
SSgt David H. Spaeth 11092413.
PFC Leo J. Speicher 33460966.
SSgt Henry L. Steuben 3346051.
Sgt John F. Stowell 31269580.
Sgt Lawrence N. Straub 33488151.
PFC Joseph Tamgredi
Tec5 Abraham V. Tannous 32164791.
Tec5 Wilson Taylor 44014762.
Sgt William E. Test 33498888.
PFC Cecil Tharin
PFC Raymond E. Thomas 33488170.
Pvt Frank J. Trase 16894003.
Tec4 Richard C. Trimble 33497364.
PFC Joseph S. Ulintz 33422782.
PFC John Urasko 33409513.
Pvt Leslie M. Utley 33569848.
PFC Keith W. Utley 3 3 522451.
PFC Frank P. Vargo 33488028.
Tec5 Louis A. Venero 32162403.
Cpl Edward G. Vetter 37655391.
Sgt Joseph W. Vincent 33065446.
PFC Vernon F. Waldron 31320893.
Chap Henry C. Walters
Cpl Elmer J. Watlington 33530643.
Sgt Billy M. Wattenburger 38399603.
Pvt Bernard L. Waugh 06998490.
PFC Harold J. West 35423559.
PFC William C. Westbrook 33553008.
PFC Luther J. Whorton 38139659.
SSgt Joseph Wilder
PFC Donald M. Williams 35622822.
Sgt James G. Wilson 39144450.
Pvt Joseph T. Wlodkowaki 32651342.
PFC Homer C. Wolfe 33082450.
SSgt Donald L. Woodside 39035173.
Pvt Duncan F. Woodward 39035173.
Pvt Michael J. 13089031.
SSgt Herbert B. Young 07002064.
1st Lt Charles S. W. King 0543282.
2nd Lt Russell Larsen 01038725.
1st Lt Russell W. Lawson Am.0.
1st Lt Robert G. Wright Jr. 0395182. .
PFC Joseph Carpentino 31274723.
PFC James R. Vaughn 33522836.
Pvt Robert Clark Jr. 13016616.
Pvt Ralph E. Fisher 33530400.
Pvt Paul J. Stedry 37491198.(md).
PFC Francis R. Keef 37154577.
Pvt John Neca 39253547.
Cpl Harold E. Adams 36452569.
PFC Alfred D. Alverson 37656792.
Pvt Louis E. Barkley 36955003.
Tec5 John T. Beck12060244.
Tec5 Floyd B. Boileau 36565124.
Sgt Charles R. Brusie
Pvt Mervin E. Chandler 11088240.
PFC Clarence K. Christie 34285951.
PFC Joe Collins 34394551.
Pvt Edward M. Copeland Jr. 39145980.
Pvt John C. Cordes 20283708.
Tec5 William H. Crow 38338148.
Sgt Charles R. Drusie
Sgt Anthony Dxawle 6897989.
Sgt Albert K. Gullion 33091818.
1stsgt George F. Hall 33168035.
Vernon Land 33497363.
Tec5 Joseph C. Laster 34446558.
Tec4 Donald P. Mcdonald 32831389.
Pvt Floyd A. Myers 33553057.
Pvt James F. Reid 33775038.
Pvt Woodrow J. Saatman 39001226.
Pvt Raymond W. Edgren 16175359.
Tec5 Charles M. Boyd 35049633.
SSgt Norbert C. Guy 35618683.
Pvt John B. Newton 32748377.
Tec5 John T. Beck 12060244.
Pvt Joseph Berek 16099413.
Tec5 Floyd B. Boileau 36565124.
SSgt Berc J. Breaux 34076570.
Sgt Charles R. Brusie 32192218
Sgt Charles R. Drusie 32192218
Tec4 Martin J. Buchanan 13016790.
Pvt James O. Burns 34394586.
Pvt Russell Christian 33006273.
Tec5 Richard E. Clark 35168625.
Tec5 Adam A. Czuorenski 36898705.
Pvt Harold B. Diamond 36897303.
Pvt Albert D. Doyle 33409638.
PFC Ernest Eckstein
PFC Walter E. Faust 35230566.
Pvt Floyd E. Follis 362344075.
Pvt Charles R. Fox 36839830.
Pvt John R. Gaines 39469882.
Pvt Robert L. Gibson 36708857.
Tec5 Clarence D. Gillam
Pvt Duane V. Grondabl 39183648.
PFC Wintrop F. Hale
PFC Delmer H. Hall 33040093.
PFC Lester M. Hendrickson 37279272.
PFC Alvin F. Berrman37228153.
Clay G. Holcomb
Tec5 Francis J. Keating
Pvt Stanley V. Keyaha 39419433.
Pvt Rubin Konkoff 41216626.
PFC Paul J. Kuksasik 31006674.
PFC Max Kurtzberg 33576520.
PFC John H. Laughlin 37653899.
Pvt Raymond T. Leaf
Cpl Vernon D. Lewis 33497363.
Tec5 Paul J. Lukesik 31006874.
Tec5 Harvy W. Martindell
Pvt Oswald H. Mason
Pvt Daniel K. McCarthy 42086974.
Tec5 Gordon V. McCarty
Pvt Jesse Miller 33203427.
Sgt Benjamin Pas 38409268.
Pvt John C. Patton 35528575.
Tec5 John W. Paul Jr. 15103659.
Pvt William M. Pierce
Tec4 Willis R. Sarver 35393918.
Tec4 Louis J. Sencaj 35575951.
Tec5 John Serbeni Jr
Tec5 John Serfencick 33576525.
PFC Henry F. Silook 12058584.
Sgt Elmer D. Simmons
Pvt Jackson D. Sizemore 06667128.
PFC Herny F. Slicox 12058684.
PFC Samuel A. Smith 33481453.
PFC Edward J. Sorivani 33865248.
Sgt Elmer P. Thompson 36525375.
PFC Bechard F. Thompson 33553173.
SSgt Alfred D. Vogt 36507620.
Pvt Paul 0. Walk Jr. 33569863.
PFC Thomas E. Walker 31229384.
Sgt William E. West 33498888.
SSgt Thomas R. Wiggins 37504588.
PFC Joseph E. Wight 33553078.
Cpl Robert L. Williams 38150635.
Tec5 Howard E. Yarbrough 36323716.
SSgt Norman L. Young 35258380.
Pvt Francis J. Zerbee 15340130.
1st Lt Henry M. Conover 01037440.
1st Lt Samuel V. Cox.
2nd Lt Adolph Bednarz 01536004.
Capt Roy D. Cooper 0417998.
2nd Lt Vincent A. Cutone 02050444.
1st Lt James E. Davies 01036939.
2nd Lt Bruno J. Jankowicz 01536061.
2nd Lt Vincent B. Allison 01536299.
Capt Don E. Arenz 01038125.
2nd Lt William D. Cole 01535874.
1st Lt Robert B. Cota 01035229.
2nd Lt William H. Davis, Jr 01536160.
2nd Lt Edgar T. Donaldson 01536031.
2nd Lt Shelton M. Hanning 01536178.
2nd Lt John L. Ilift
2nd Lt Ralph J. Jakaz
Kenneth Lawson 0543057.
2nd Lt Rtian Jaret 01536186.
Capt Thomas D. Lloyd
Capt Alvin C. Metcalfe
1st Lt Frank R. Oradat
1st Lt Walter C. Repony
Capt Carl E. Sandbank
2nd Lt Honffir P. St Clair 0156224.
Maj Richard C. Tanner
2nd Lt Walter E. Thompson 01535978.
2nd Lt Leo J. Weaver 01536141.
1st Lt James J. York
2nd Lt Sherwood B. Young 01536148.
1st Lt Henry C. Pross 01174292.
Ralph England 37730836.
Sgt Mark R. Jackson Jr. 3576882.
PFC William O. Kyriakokos 31430982.
SSgt Joseph J. Larocco 42075765.
Sgt Francis W. Lavoy 42165614.
Sgt George E. Noble 42093668.
Sgt Harry Nozkowski. 42142589
PFC Robert W. Pepin 31400003 1.
Tec4 Albert E. Privett 34996961.
Cpl Dario F. Romano 33714648..
Tec4 Robert L. Krueger 35238795.
PFC Roy S. Lermond 31431071.
PFC Edgar A. Luchsinger 37587068.
PFC John Monk 42081705.
Tec4 Travis Latham 34801276.
SSgt Earnest C. Barth.
Frank F. Dunlop 37655262.
PFC Louis J. Gentile Jr 31434229,
Pvt Donald O'Reilly 37771411.
PFC Edwin Prusinald 36418652.
W. C. Adams
Sbellman H. Brown
PFC Leo P. Browning 35814391.
George D. Carlson
Ted S. Cherekas
John W. Considine, Jr
Lorne T. Dunning
John E. Franklin
Tec4 Frederick W. Gartner, Jr. 15360007.
James H. Kendall
Hugh Laupin 34363317.
MSgt Richard E. McKown
SSgt Robert D. McFadden 36825326.
Pvt Ray W. O'Dell 3 959143 5.
SSgt Frank Oprandy 32763426.
Tec5 Robert L. Gagnon 31400173.
Willlkm Beck 33498913.
William Benderson 34935291.
Tec5 Austin J. Merrbach 33767482.
I wish to acknowledge the help provided by various people in the process of locating records and sources of information. I appreciate help furnished by all of the following.
The reference librarians of the Central library and the librarians at the Bayside Branch library, both in Virginia Beach, VA.
The librarians in the Government Publications Department of Old Dominion University in Norfolk, VA.
Personnel of the National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C., Suitland Reference Branch and College Park, MD.
Personnel of the U.S. Army Center of Military History, Washington, D.C., especially Ms Janice E. McKenney and Mr. John W. Elsberg.
Personnel of U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA, especially Mr. John J. Slonaker.
Lt Col John B. Deasy, AUS-Ret, 86th Chemical Mortar Battalion Assoc., San Francisco, CA.
Mr. Gerald T. Luchens, Department of the Army, The Institute of Heraldry, United States Army, Alexandria, VA.
Mr. George L. Murray, Chemical Corps Regimental Association, Ft McClellan, AL.
Ms. Martha A. Relph, Morris Sweet Technical Library, Fort Sill, OK.
Brig Gen (ret) E. C. Cutler, Jr., 76th Infantry Division Assoc Inc, New Windsor, N.Y.
Ms. Judy Stephenson, Armor School Library, Ft. Knox, KY.
Mr. W. B. Johnson, Editor, The Society of the Eighty-Ninth Div. WWII, Donnelly, Idaho
National Personnel Records Center, (Military Personnel Records), St. Louis, MO.
Department of Veterans Affairs, Records Management Center, St. Louis, MO.
World War II Was A Chemical War! by Major General William N. Porter, USA, Army & Navy Journal, vol LXXXIII, whole number 3300. Used by permission.
U.S. Army in World War II
European Theater of Operations
The Last Offensive by Charles B. MacDonald (1973, 1984, 532 pp.) CMH Pub 7-9.
The Chemical Warfare Service: Organizing for War, by Leo P.Brophy and George J.B. Fisher (1959,1989: 498 pp.) CMH Pub 10-1.
The Chemical Warfare Service: Chemicals in Combat, by Brooks E.Kleber and Dale Birdall (1965, 1984: 673 pp.) CMH Pub 10-3.
The Chemical Warfare Service: from Laboratory to Field, by Leo P.Brophy, Wyndham D. Miles and Raymond C. Cochrane (1959, 1980; 498 pp.) CMH Pub 10-2.
Army Ground Forces
The Organization of Ground Combat Troops, by Ken Roberts Greenfield, Robert R. Palmer and Bell I Wiley (1947, 1983; 540 pp.) CMH Pub 2-1.
The Procurement and Training of Ground Combat Troops, by Robert R. Palmer, Bell I Wiley and William R. Keast (1948, 1975 :696 pp.) CMH Pub 2-2.
Chronology: 1941-1945, compiled by Mary H. Williams (1960, 1989 :660 pp.) CMH Pub 11-1.
Army Lineage Series
Armies, Corps, Divisions, and Separate Brigades, compiled by John B. Wilson (1987, : 850 pp.) CMH Pub 60-7.
Army Historical Series
The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany, 1944-1946, by Earl F. Ziemke (1975, 1985: 484 pp.) CMH Pub 30-6.
Federal Records of World War II, Vol II, Military Agencies (1951) General Services Administration; National Archives Publication 10051-8.
Stanton, S. L., Order of Battle U.S. Army, World War II, Novato: Presidio Press, 1984.
Patton, George. S. Jr., War As I Knew It, Boston: Houghton Miffin Company, 1947.
Allen, R. S. Col., Lucky Forward, The History of Patton's Third U.S. Army, New York: The Vanguard Press, Inc., 1947.
Windrow, Martin, The Soldier Through the Ages, The World War II GI, New York: Franklin Watts Ltd, 1986.
United States At War, Army and Navy Journal, Volume LXXXIII-No. 15. Whole Number 3300
Order of Battle, European Theater of Operations (as of 7 May 1945), from General of the Army Marshall's Report, p37.
Operations of Fifteenth U. S. Army by Lieutenant General Leanard T. Gerow, USA, p 51.
World War II WAS A Chemical War! by Major General William N. Porter, USA p123.
Jordy, Bill Sgt, Right To Be Proud; History of the 65th Division's March Across Germany.
The 89th Infantry Division, 1942-1945, 89th Infantry Division Historical Board. Nashville: Battery Press, 1980. 270 p.
An historical and Pictorial record of the 87th Infantry Division in World War II, 1942-1945 (Baton Rouge Army and Navy Pub Co. 1946.
After-action reports, 29 March - 19 April 1945, Headquarters, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion.
General orders, Headquarters, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion.
History, Company A, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion 1944-1945.
Original and Final History of 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion for 1945.
Headquarters, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion.
History, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, 1944-1945.
History, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion 22 Mar 1944 - 9 May 1945.
Original and Final History of 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion for 1944.
General Orders,VIII Corps, June 1945.
Morning Reports, 93rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, March 1944- October 1945.
VIII Corps Operations Memorandum Number 40-50.
Field Order #19, Headquarters VIII Corps, April 1945.
Report of the VIII Corps after Action Against Enemy Forces in Germany for the Period 1-30 April 1945, Headquarters VIII Corps.
Report of the VIII Corps after Action Against Enemy Forces in Germany for the Period 1-8 May 1945, Headquarters VIII Corps.
WWII Operations Reports, Third Army, After Action Reports, 1 August 1944 - 9 May 1945.
This history is based on materials the author believes reliable. However, he does not assume responsibility for any inaccuracies. In some instances it was necessary to make assumptions when sufficient evidence was not available to make an accurate determination of what existed or what transpired.
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